Shapur II


Also found in: Wikipedia.

Shapur II

or

Sapor II,

310–79, king of Persia (310–79), of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty. He was the posthumous son of Hormuz II and therefore was born king. His long reign was marked by great military success. Central Asian tribes had taken advantage of his minority to regain much of their former territory, then held by Persia. Later, however, Shapur crushed their kingdom in the east and annexed the area as a new province. Cultural expansion followed this victory, and Sassanian art penetrated Turkistan, reaching as far as China. Having removed the threat from the east, Shapur resumed warfare against the Romans over the control of Armenia. Although driven back at first, the Roman army counterattacked and threatened Ctesiphon. But when the emperor Julian the Apostate was killed (363) in battle, the Romans withdrew. The emperor JovianJovian
(Flavius Claudius Jovianus) , c.331–364, Roman emperor (363–64). The commander of the imperial guard under Julian the Apostate in his Persian campaign, Jovian was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers when Julian was killed.
..... Click the link for more information.
 made a humiliating peace, and Shapur recovered Armenia, which he placed under military occupation. Armenia had in the meantime accepted Christianity, and Shapur, an orthodox Zoroastrian, at first persecuted the Christians but later recognized their autonomy and respected their religion. He had a large rock sculpture made near Shapur to commemorate his victory over the Romans.
References in periodicals archive ?
When Emperor Constantine, who legalized Christianity as a religion in Roman Empires died in 337, Shapur II of Persia began a series of attacks in Nisibus.
Chogan was first played in Iran in the 4th Century during the rule of Emperor Shapur II of the Sassanid Dynasty.
In the reign of Shapur II among Arabs there was an emir called Amro Al qeis who was ruling on some of the Arab tribes that were united under his supervision.
(3.) Shapur I reigned from 239-242 to 270-272; Shapur II from 308/9-379; Shapur III from 383-388.
A particularly hated man was the Persian ruler Shapur II, who reigned 70 years from AD309-379.
Perhaps its most beguiling offering is a bronze head and torso of the Sassanid Persian king Shapur II (Fig.
In 302, Diocletian promulgated an edict against Manichees in Egypt, not so much for religious as for political reasons: the emperor considered the Manichees a Persian fifth column seeking to undermine Roman resolve to maintain the conflict with Persia.(16) It is not known when Strategius, investigation into Manichaeism is to be dated but it is not unlikely that Constantine's interest in Manichaeism was roused in the 330s through his dealings with the Persian Empire and Shapur II. Mani himself, the founder of Manichaeism, had been a subject of the Persian king.
Since Shapur II, bestowing silver dishes as gifts was considered as an instrument for royal propaganda; according to Moses Kalankatuisky, Shapur II gave away silver bowls and cups to the rulers of other nations [5].
Jondi Shapur became the capital city of Emperor Shapur II, and gained its claim to fame during the reign of Khosrow I Anushirvan.
Some sub-sections of chapters are completely devoted to a particular king and his era (Naram-Sin of Akkad, Rim-Sin of Larsa, Shamshi-Adad of Upper Mesopotamia, Hammurabi of Babylon, Assurnasirpal II and Sennacherib of Assyria, Nabonidus of Babylon, Antio-chus I Soter, Mithridates I, Shapur I, and Shapur II).
Among the works is a silver-gilt royal hunting plate with the portrait of Shapur II (309-379 CE), a Sassanian ruler recognizable by his distinctive crown.
In retaliation, Shapur II led an expedition through Bahrain, defeated the combined forces of the Arab tribes of "Taghleb", "Bakr bin Wael", and "Abd Al-Qays" and advanced temporarily into Yamama in central Najd.