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SHA

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SHA

(Secure Hash Algorithm) A family of popular cryptographic hash algorithms used to create digital signatures. The 160-bit SHA was developed by the National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) in 1993, and SHA-1 was the first revision in 1994. SHA-1 is similar to the MD4 and MD5 algorithms developed by Rivest, but is slightly slower and more secure. See MD5.

SHA-2 and SHA-3
Released in 2001, the stronger SHA-2 version superseded SHA-1. Because computers are increasingly more powerful, the stronger algorithm is encouraged by certificate authorities (CAs) to prevent an attacker from impersonating a CA. SHA-256 and SHA-512 are SHA-2 algorithms using hash lengths of 256 and 512 bits respectively, and SHA-224 and SHA-384 are truncated versions.

SHA-3 was released by NIST in 2015, which supports the same hash lengths as SHA-2 but uses a different cryptographic method based on the Keccak algorithm. SHA-3 was the result of a NIST competition for a new hash standard that began in 2006 and ended in 2012. See cryptographic hash function and digital signature.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The new SHA cluster arrangements will mirror the four commissioning sectors of the new national NHS commissioning board, which, subject to legislation, will become operational from April next year.
After intense negotiations, the Shas party said it was unable to reach an agreement with Kadima over the status of Jerusalem and social welfare benefits.Shas said it had not received satisfactory offers on its two main demands.
When asked on Voice of Israel Radio whether the decision was final, Shas Chairman Eli Yishai said: "Yes.
An interesting finding of the book is that some of the Shas schools, despite the vehement anti-intellectualism of the movement, have modern quality programs in secular subjects such as physical education and science.
"By 2008, the NHS will make annual savings of at least pounds 250m to plough back into front line services as a result of the SHA and Primary Care Trust (PCT) mergers.
Shas chairman Eli Yishai said he was "open" to negotiating a new economic plan.
Mr Flory has been chief executive of Northumberland, Tyne and Wear SHA since 2002 and has also been chief executive of County Durham and Tees Valley SHA since August last year.
The Government has called for a reduction in the number of health organisations, so a single SHA covering the wider West Midlands may be established to replace the existing three in Shropshire and Staffordshire, Birmingham and the Black Country, and West Midlands South.
Efforts by Israeli Prime Minister-elect Ariel Sharon to form a government received a boost Sunday when the ultra-Orthodox Shas party agreed to join a unity government.
Health Secretary Patricia Hewitt yesterday said the number of SHAs in England would be cut from 28 to 10.