in Uzbek and Tadzhik music:

(1) A system of six tonal systems used in makom (large-scale vocal and instrumental works in several sections)—Buzruk, Rost, Navo, Dugokh, Segokh, and Irok.

(2) The complete body of makom written in these tonal systems; musical works, each of which bears the name of its tonal system and consists of 20–40 instrumental and vocal sections. A shashmakom is performed by an ensemble of instrumentalists, soloists, and a chorus and sometimes is accompanied by dancing. The first collection of shashmakom (without text) was recorded by V. A. Uspenskii and published in 1924; a full cycle (with text) was first published between 1950 and 1967.


Radzhabov, I. Makomlar masalasiga doir. Tashkent, 1963.
Veksler, S. “Uzbekskie makomy.” In the collection Ocherki istorii muzykal’noi kul’tury Uzbekistana, no. 1. Tashkent, 1968.
Vyzgo, T. “K voprosu ob izuchenii makomov.” In the collection Istoriia i sovremennost’: Problemy muzykal’noi kul’tury narodov Uzbekistana, Turkmenii i Tadzhikistana. Moscow, 1972.