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(shô'nē`) or


(shô`wənō), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). Their earliest known home was in the present state of Ohio. In the mid-17th cent. part of the tribe was settled in W South Carolina and part in N Tennessee. These two bodies, divided by the Cherokee, migrated constantly, from South Carolina to S New York, then to W Pennsylvania and into Ohio, where they finally united in the mid-18th cent. They then numbered some 1,500. After their reunion in Ohio the warlike Shawnee participated in almost every war of the Old Northwest (see Northwest TerritoryNorthwest Territory,
first possession of the United States, comprising the region known as the Old Northwest, S and W of the Great Lakes, NW of the Ohio River, and E of the Mississippi River, including the present states of Ohio, Ind., Ill., Mich., Wis., and part of Minn.
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). By the Treaty of Greenville (1795) they were obliged to give up their lands in Ohio and move to Indiana. About 1800 the Shawnee Prophet (Tenskwatawa) arose. He and his followers, cooperating with TecumsehTecumseh
, 1768?–1813, chief of the Shawnee, b. probably in Clark co., Ohio. Among his people he became distinguished for his prowess in battle, but he opposed the practice of torturing prisoners.
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, established themselves in a village at the mouth of the Tippecanoe River in Indiana. It was this village that William Henry Harrison destroyed in the battle of TippecanoeTippecanoe
, river, c.170 mi (270 km) long, rising in the lake district of NE Ind. and flowing SW to the Wabash River, near Lafayette. U.S. Gen. William Henry Harrison fought the Shawnees in the battle of Tippecanoe, Nov. 7, 1811, on the site of Battle Ground, Ind.
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. The Shawnee were thereafter moved to Missouri, to Kansas, and finally to Oklahoma. Today they live on reservations in Oklahoma and Missouri. In 1990 there were over 6,600 Shawnee in the United States.


See H. Harvey, History of the Shawnee Indians, 1681–1854 (1855, repr. 1970).


(1 shô`nē', shô'nē`; 2 shô'nē`). 1 City (1990 pop. 37,993), Johnson co., NE Kans., a residential suburb of Kansas City; founded 1857, inc. 1922. Consumer goods, lumber, honey, concrete, terra cotta, metal products, and machinery are produced, and farm and dairy products are shipped. The city was the original site of the Shawnee Indian Methodist Mission (1830). A re-creation of an old Shawnee town is in Bluejacket Park.

2 City (1990 pop. 26,017), seat of Pottawatomie co., central Okla., on the North Canadian River; inc. 1894. Shawnee boomed with the discovery of oil there in 1926. The city is the trade and rail center for a rich farm, dairy, and oil area. Electronic goods, machinery, apparel, chemicals, and metal products are manufactured. Shawnee is the seat of Oklahoma Baptist Univ. and St. Gregory's Univ. Art and Native American museums are in the city. Jim ThorpeThorpe, Jim
(James Francis Thorpe), 1888–1953, American athlete, b. near Prague, Okla. Thorpe was probably the greatest all-round male athlete the United States has ever produced. His mother, a Sac, named him Bright Path.
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 was born nearby.



an Algonquian-speaking tribe of North American Indians. Until the early 17th century the Shawnee lived in southeastern North America, along the Cumberland River in Tennessee, where they engaged in land cultivation and hunting. In the 17th and 18th centuries they were driven off their lands; they were initially pushed northward to Pennsylvania, then westward to Missouri. In the early 19th century Tecumseh, the war chief of the Shawnee, tried to organize a confederacy of Indian tribes to resist the advance of settlers beyond the Ohio River. The forces of the confederacy were dispersed, and the Shawnee were settled on a reservation in Kansas; eventually they were resettled in Oklahoma. According to the 1970 census, the Shawnee number 2,200, most of whom work as hired laborers.

References in periodicals archive ?
By the American Revolution, the Shawnee population was largely in Ohio.
Hereditary blood feuds developed between the Shawnee and again with the English, German and Scotch-Irish patriot settlers at Boonsboro, Bryants and McClellands stations, and all of the dozens of patriot squatter settlements that sprang up in Kentucky over-night.
Shawnee war parties lead and supplied by the British attacked Kentucky settlements the entire eight years of the American Revolution.
Warren's study deals with the Shawnees from 1795 to 1870.
In the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix, William Johnson purchased from the Iroquois thousands of square miles of land but omitted inviting Shawnees and Cherokees to the deliberations.
Warren fills in important gaps in our knowledge of diverse groups of Shawnees as he traces their history.
For more than a century, it has been popularly held that the Tri-State (Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky) and Michigan Shawnee Indian war chief, Blue Jacket, was actually a Caucasian and not a Native American.
By their account, Chief Blue Jacket was born a Shawnee Indian who has been known by at least two additional Indian names over the more than 240 years since his birth: Se pet te he nathe (given name at birth: Big Rabbit, ca 1738) (Sugden 2003), and Wa weyapiersehnwaw (adult chosen name: Whirlpool, ca 1777) (Sugden 2003).
Marmaduke is said to have been captured (along with his younger brother Charles) by the Shawnee Indians during a hunting expedition during the time of the American Revolutionary War.
In response to American expansion, a Shawnee chief by the name of Tecumseh attempted to form a confederation of various native tribes in an attempt to war against the Americans.
In addition to a hostile Native American confederation, the Shawnee also took up arms during the War of 1812 (1812-1815) in support of the British.
Oddly enough, during this period with all of the hostility by the Shawnee, the local Kaskaskia were still on very good terms with settlers even though they had been placed on a reservation in Jackson County in 1803.