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(shŭn-yäng), formerly


(mo͞ok`dŭn), city (1994 est. pop. 3,762,000), capital of Liaoning prov., NE China, on the Hun River. It is China's fourth largest city and the leading manufacturing hub in a highly industrialized area. Manufactures include heavy machinery, tractors, motor vechicles, cables, machine tools (Shenyang has one of the largest machine-tool plants in China), transformers, textiles, chemicals, paper products, medicines, and cement. Copper, zinc, and lead are smelted in the city. It is connected by rail with all the major cities of Liaoning prov. and with Beijing and North Korea.

The city has three sections—the old Chinese city, which is the administrative center; the new city, developed by the Japanese around the railroad; and a residential section beyond the railroad. The area doubled in population in the 1950s and 1960s, with a striking increase in both city and suburban population. Shenyang is the seat of Liaoning Univ., Northeastern China Technical Univ., a medical college, a conservatory of music, and numerous other specialized institutes.

During the Russo-Japanese War (1904–5), Shenyang was an important military objective; it fell to the Japanese on Mar. 10, 1905, after a 15-day battle. Following the establishment of the Chinese republic (1912), Shenyang was the headquarters of several warlords, notably Chang Tso-linChang Tso-lin
, 1873–1928, Chinese general. Chang was of humble birth. As the leader of a unit of Manchurian militia he assisted (1904–5) the Japanese in the Russo-Japanese War. He held various military posts under the Chinese republic.
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, who was assassinated outside the city in 1928. There, in Sept., 1931, occurred the Mukden or Manchurian Incident, when the Japanese army used an explosion on the railroad N of Shenyang as a pretext for occupying the city and beginning the occupation of all Manchuria. After 1931, the Japanese developed the city as an industrial center. Shenyang fell to the Communists on Nov. 1, 1948, after a 10-month siege, during which time thousands starved; the defending Nationalist force was annihilated during a breakout attempt.


a walled city in NE China in S Manchuria, capital of Liaoning province: capital of the Manchu dynasty from 1644--1912; seized by the Japanese in 1931. Pop.: 4 916 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
This approximately 500-square-metre facility will be built on the same campus as GE's current manufacturing operation in Shenyang, the largest city of Liaoning Province.
Bo Xilai, the former Chinese Communist Party chief in Chongqing who was sentenced last year to life in prison for bribery, embezzlement and abuse of power, spent two decades in an area within Shenyang, including serving as the mayor of Dalian City and the governor of Liaoning Province.
He plans to develop online teaching resources for Shenyang students along with staff there.
Officials in Shenyang have now asked store owners to reopen after 95 percent of shops remain closed in the wake of the online rumour.
Sunday marked the 80th anniversary of the Japanese bombing of a railroad track near Shenyang, the start of the Manchurian Incident that led to Japan's invasion of northeastern China in 1931.
Shenyang is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China.
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Zhang Youxia, head of the Chinese delegation and commander of the Shenyang
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APPROPRIATELY held on the eve of Chinese New Year, the winner of the 2007 biannual Cardiff Singer Of The World, Shenyang, a native of Shanghai, returned to the city of his win to give his UK recital debut.
North Korea's ambassador for normalization talks with Japan arrived in Shenyang on Saturday, ahead of negotiations between Tokyo and Pyongyang to be held in the northeastern Chinese city from Monday.