Shiraz


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Shiraz

(shēräz`), city (1991 pop. 965,117), capital of Fars prov., SW Iran, at an altitude of c.5,200 ft (1,580 m). It is a commercial and industrial center and has long been known for its wines, carpets, and metalwork. Other manufactures include textiles, petrochemicals, cement, and sugar. An old settlement, Shiraz became an important commercial, military, and administrative center in the late 7th cent. In the 9th cent. two brothers of Imam Riza died in Shiraz; their tombs are still visited by pilgrims. From about the 10th cent. Shirazi traders were active along the E African coast. Timur sacked the city in the late 14th cent., but later, under the Safavids, it was embellished with numerous new buildings. Under Karim Khan, the city served (1750–79) as capital of Persia; it declined after Karim's successor, Aga Muhammad Khan, moved the capital to Tehran. Hafiz and Sadi, two of Persia's greatest poets, are buried in garden-enclosed tombs in Shiraz. A university and the Fars Museum are also in the city. Nearby are the ruins of PersepolisPersepolis
[Gr.,=city of Persia], ancient city of Persia, ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid empire under Darius I and his successors. The administrative capitals were elsewhere, notably at Susa and Babylon.
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, established by Darius I (fl. 521 B.C.–486 B.C.) as capital of the Persian empire. The palace was destroyed by Alexander in 330 B.C.

Shiraz

 

a city in southwestern Iran, on the Bushire-Isfahan highway. Administrative center of the ostan(province) of Fars. Population, 370,000 (1975). Shiraz produces textiles, sugar, flour, wine, mineral fertilizers, cement, petroleum and attar of roses. The city is famous for its carpets, mosaics, and silver articles. It is the trade center of an agricultural region that produces roses, grapes, tobacco, and sugar beets. A university is located in the city.

Under the Sassanids a settlement stood on the site of Shiraz. A city was founded there by Arabs in the seventh century. From the tenth to mid-llth centuries, Shiraz was a center of the Buyid state. In the 14th century it was seized twice by Tamerlane. In the 14th and 15th centuries the Shiraz school of miniatures was famous. In the second half of the 18th century, under the Zands, the city was the capital of Persia. Shiraz was the birthplace of Saadi and Hafez. The ruins of Persepolis are located 50 km northeast of the city. Architectural monuments include the fortress walls. The Fars Museum, which houses works of Iranian applied art, is located in Shiraz. The Mausoleum of Saadi (1952, architect A. Godard) is nearby.

REFERENCE

Hatami, A. Shiraz. Tehran [1961].

Shiraz

a city in SW Iran, at an altitude of 1585 m (5200 ft.): an important Muslim cultural centre in the 14th century; university (1948); noted for fine carpets. Pop.: 1 230 000 (2005 est.)
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