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a beef and dual-purpose (beef and dairy) breed of cattle. The Shorthorn was developed in the 18th century in Great Britain by improving local short-horned cattle, by crossing with Dutch and the Galloway breeds, and by selection, first for meat qualities and in the mid-19th century also for dairy qualities.
There are two types of Shorthorn: beef and dual-purpose. The coloring is various shades of red, as well as white and roan. Bulls weigh 850 to 950 kg (up to 1,200 kg), and cows, 500 to 600 kg (up to 750 kg); young reared for meat weigh 400 to 420 kg by one year of age. The yield of dressed meat is 66 to 67 percent. The meat is tender and marbled. The milk yield of dual-purpose cows is 3,500 to 4,000 kg, sometimes reaching 14,000 kg; the fat content of the milk is 3.7 to 3.9 percent. Shorthorn bulls are widely used for commercial crossbreeding with cows of various dairy breeds. Shorthorns were first imported into Russia in the 19th century and were used to develop the Bestuzhev and later the Kurgan breeds.
Shorthorns are raised in the countries of Europe and North and South America (in the USA the Santa Gertrudis breed was developed using Shorthorns) and in Australia and New Zealand; in the USSR, they are raised in Orenburg, Voronezh, Tiumen’, and Rostov oblasts and in the Bashkir ASSR.
REFERENCESShortgornskii skot i ego metisy v SSSR. Moscow, 1936. (Collection of articles.)
Rukovodstvo po razvedeniiu zhivotnykh, vol. 3, book 1. Moscow, 1965. (Translated from German.)
Skotovodstvo. Edited by E. A. Arzumanian. Moscow, 1970.
B. V. FANDEEV