Based on the archaeological, art-historical, and philological evidence first presented in CoD, significantly updated and expanded here, the historical Shoshenq I is rather to be sought in the later ninth century, in an "Omride"--rather than "Solomonic"--Iron Age IIA period, as argued for in Israel Finkelstein's (1995, 1996) "Low Chronology." (Finkelstein's Low Chronology has also generated dozens of widely divergent critical reviews, for a listing of which see http://www.cjconroy.net/bib/chron-low.htm.) Further evidence is presented in support of the identification of the biblical Shishak with Egyptian king Ramesses III, ruling at the onset of the Iron IA period in the later tenth century.
The colloquium's three sessions were entitled: 1) Is the Biblical Shishak the Same as the Egyptian Pharaoh Shoshenq I? (ten papers); 2) The Glorious Reign of Solomon, Fact or Fiction?
The fragment of a monumental commemorative stele of Shoshenq I found in 1925 at Megiddo among unstratified debris in a spoil heap left by German archaeologists excavating there between 1903 and 1905 (cf.
Aidan Dodson responds with "Shoshenq I: A Conventional(ish) View." Accepting the equation of Shishak and Shoshenq I, Dodson acknowledges the absence of Jerusalem on the legible parts of the unfinished Bubastite Portal at Karnak.
Shirly Ben-Dor Evian, in "Shoshenq I and the Levant: Synchronizing Chronologies," argues, on the basis of several aspects of what she terms "Early Iron Age IIA" material culture, for a "lingering Egyptian influence" (p.
Robert Morkot, one of the original contributors to Centuries of Darkness, and Peter James, in "Dead-reckoning the Start of the 22nd Dynasty: From Shoshenq V back to Shoshenq I," re-examine Kitchen's method of "dead-reckoning" backwards through the Third Intermediate Period by reconsidering both its verifiable duration and its historical anchor point.
Ad Thijs' contribution, "From the Lunar Eclipse of Takeloth II back to Shoshenq I and Shishak," is the development of an earlier publication (Thijs 2010).
In the next two papers, the authors, Troy Leiland Sagrillo, "Shoshenq I and Biblical Sisaq: A Philological Defense of Their Traditional Equation," and Peter van der Veen, "The Name Shishaq: Sosenq or Sysu/q?
He's generally identified as pharaoh Shoshenq I, who resided in Tanis and indeed invaded Jerusalem in 925 BC and took away the treasures of both the palace and the temple.
Krupp replies: Although "Shishak" is not a name ever used by the Egyptian pharaohs, Egyptologists do equate the Bible's Shishak with Shoshenq I. Because he died 400 years before the Shishak mentioned in Raiders of the Lost Ark, he qualifies for a Shoshenq redemption.