Albanians

(redirected from Shqiptar)

Albanians

 

(in Albanian, the singular is shqipetar).

(1)The nation which forms the basic population of Albania, numbering about 1,855,000 (1966). About 1 million Albanians live in Yugoslavia, mainly in Kosovo, Metohija, and Macedonia; there are several thousand in Greece and 100,000–150,000 in the southern regions of Italy and the island of Sicily. A small number of Albanians live in Turkey, Bulgaria, and Rumania; there are 5,000 Albanians in the USSR, in Odessa and Zaporozh’e oblasts of the Ukrainian SSR. The Albanian language constitutes an independent branch of the Indo-European family. Seventy-one percent of the Albanians who are religious are Muslims, 19 percent are Orthodox, and 10 percent are Catholics.

Opinions differ on the ethnogeny of the Albanians. Some scholars (including Albanian) see the Illyrians as the basic element in their ancestry, while others consider the Thracians the basic element. Roman rule in Illyria (second century B.C. to fourth century A.D.) left its traces in the language and culture of Albanians. During the Middle Ages, the Albanian lands were the scene of uninterrupted struggle among Byzantines, Bulgarians, Normans, Serbs, and others, and this too has left its mark on the ethnic makeup of Albanians. The term “Albanians,” which first appeared in the second century as a tribal name, began to be applied to all the inhabitants of present-day Albania in the 11th century.

Turkish hegemony, which lasted from the late 15th century until 1912, served as a brake on the historical development of Albanians. Feudal fragmentation meant the disruption of economic ties between regions and the deepening of differences of dialect; regional designations of Albanians emerged. The old term “Albanians” was gradually replaced by the newer Shqipetar, by which those speaking fluent Albanian—that is, shqip —were distinguished from foreigners. In the second half of the 18th and early 19th centuries, designations for the two basic regions of Albania and their inhabitants took shape: Toskeria and the Tosks in the south and Ghegeria and the Ghegs in the north.

The ethnic consolidation of Albanians, which took place in the context of uninterrupted resistance to Turkish rule, increased particularly in the mid-19th century, when capitalist relations began to arise and the sharp struggle for national self-determination unfolded. The victory of the people’s revolution in Albania (1944) and the transition to the construction of socialism brought about the national unification of Albanians.

REFERENCES

Arsh,G. L., I. G. Senkevich, and N. D.Smirnova. Kratkaia istoriia Albanii. Moscow, 1965.

Historia e Shqipërisë, vols. 1–2. Tirana, 1959–65.

IU. V. IVANOVA

(2) Caucasian Albanians were one of the ancient tribes of the Eastern Transcaucasus.

References in periodicals archive ?
The Representative also met with Gentian Sala, Chair of the Audiovisual Media Authority (AMA), Thoma Glli, General Director of the public service broadcaster Radio Televizioni Shqiptar (RTSH), Kristaq Traja, Chair of the Steering Board, as well as numerous media analysts and journalists to get their insights on current issues and future co-operation in their respective branches of the media scene in Albania.
My only advice is: don't be part of SDSM's "movie" entitled - Shqiptar against Shqiptar, and don't be afraid of "heroes'" threats who only want to discipline us.
Within the chapters where the classification is presented, the references to Shituni's previous work (such as 'Dialektet kryesore te polifonise popullore shqiptare' [The Main Dialects of Albanian Multi-Part Music], in Ceshtje te folklorit shqiptar, No.
While Albanian traditional music is practised also by Albanians in Kosovo and Macedonia, this book is mainly focused on music being performed in Albania, with only brief references to Kosovo (just to mention one: Lorenc Antoni's Folklori muzikor shqiptar [Albanian Musical Folklore] p.
(26) Aleks Buda, Kristo Frasheri, Hysni Myzyri and others, Historia e Popullit Shqiptar, Rilindja Kombetare, Vitet 30 te shek.
"Nderkombetaret si Pala e Trete: Nje Udhetim Bashke me Nderkombetaret neper Trazicionin Shqiptar 1990-2002" (The international actors as a third party: A trip with the internationals in the Albanian transition 1990-2002).
"Politikat e Bashkimit Evropian Ndaj Kercenimit te Krimit te Organizuar Shqiptar: Nje Shqetesim Real apo i Hiperbolizuar?" Polis, Issue 4, 2007, 23-34.
Address : Fondi Shqiptar i Zhvillimit / Albanian Development Fund Rr.
In his opinion, all of this looks similar to the old division into "good Albanians" like Ali Ahmeti and "bad Shqiptars" like all the other Albanians who are discriminated against.