Most haloarchaeal shuttle vectors are derived from endogenous plasmids, such as pGRB1 , pHH1 , and pNRC100  from Halobacterium salinarum or pHK2 [4,10], pHV2 [11, 12], and pHV1/4  from Haloferax volcanii.
Stability and Maintenance of the Shuttle Vectors. To assess the structural stability of the vectors, we isolated pFJ1, pFJ4, and pFJ6 from J7-F transformants, back-transformed them into E.
Maintenance of the pFJ1, pFJ4, and pFJ6 shuttle vectors was evaluated by calculating the rate at which each plasmid was lost per generation during nonselective growth, as previously described .
Takebe, "A spectrum of mutations induced by crotonaldehyde in shuttle vector plasmids propagated in human cells," Carcinogenesis, vol.
Yagi, "Molecular analysis of mutations induced by acrolein in human fibroblast cells using supF shuttle vector plasmids," Mutation Research, vol.
A system of shuttle vectors
and yeast host strains designed for efficient manipulation of DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Mutational specificity in a shuttle vector
replicating in chromium(VI)-treated mammalian cells, Environ Mol Mutagen 33:313-319 (1999).
R4-1 was excised by elution and cloned into the pCNTR shuttle vector
by means of the General Contractor 5prime-3prime cloning kit.
acidocaldarius (strain SK-1 [[DELTA]pyrE [DELTA]suaI]) electrocompetent cells for transformation with a shuttle vector and via homologous recombination were prepared from a late log to stationary phase culture ([OD.sub.600 [??] 0.7) and an early to midlog phase culture ([OD.sub.600] = 0.1-0.4) incubated in XTU medium, respectively.
Lipps, "Small multicopy, non-integrative shuttle vectors based on the plasmid pRN1 for Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and Sulfolobus solfataricus, model organisms of the (cren-)archaea," Nucleic Acids Research, vol.
subtilis shuttle vectors
with different tags (His-tag, Strep-tag)