chemotherapy

(redirected from Side effects of chemotherapy)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.

chemotherapy

(kē'mōthĕr`əpē), treatment of disease with chemicals or drugsdrugs,
substances used in medicine either externally or internally for curing, alleviating, or preventing a disease or deficiency. At the turn of the century only a few medically effective substances were widely used scientifically, among them ether, morphine, digitalis,
..... Click the link for more information.
. One chemotherapeutic approach is the development of selectively toxic substances, i.e., substances that can destroy or inhibit infecting organisms or, as in cancer, malignant tissue, but do not damage normal host tissue. In treating infection, selectively toxic agents may block a biochemical reaction necessary to the viability of the pathogen but not to that of the host; for example, penicillinpenicillin,
any of a group of chemically similar substances obtained from molds of the genus Penicillium that were the first antibiotic agents to be used successfully in the treatment of bacterial infections in humans.
..... Click the link for more information.
 blocks synthesis of bacterial cell walls, a component animal cells lack. Other chemotherapeutic substances differentially affect biochemical reactions in different tissues; thus antimetabolites such as methotrexate and CytoxanCytoxan
, trade name for the drug cyclophosphamide, used to inhibit growth of tumors and rapidly proliferating cells. It is used in the treatment of leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and lymphosarcoma and other solid tumors.
..... Click the link for more information.
 are more toxic to rapidly proliferating cells such as those associated with cancer than to normal cells. Other drugs act in various ways to produce effects that initiate or enhance some normal body function; for instance, neostigmine blocks the action of an enzyme limiting transmission of nerve impulses and thereby acts as a nervous system stimulant. The usefulness of chemotherapeutic agents also depends on their pharmacological action, e.g., their rate of absorption, rapidity of action and rate of excretion, degree of storage in the body, effects of products of their metabolic breakdown, and potential for causing hypersensitivityhypersensitivity,
heightened response in a body tissue to an antigen or foreign substance. The body normally responds to an antigen by producing specific antibodies against it. The antibodies impart immunity for any later exposure to that antigen.
..... Click the link for more information.
 reactions. Some drugs are given prophylactically, to prevent infection, e.g., penicillin is given to rheumatic fever patients to prevent reinfection by the causative organism, the streptococcal bacterium.

Chemotherapy

 

the use of drugs to act on the causative agents of infectious and parasitic diseases and on tumor cells. The treatment of disease by chemical agents was first practiced early in the 20th century, after P. Ehrlich demonstrated the directed synthesis of agents capable of acting on microorganisms. Ehrlich used salvarsan (the first potent agent in chemotherapy) in 1909 and established the principal mechanisms of the specific action of chemical agents.

REFERENCES

Ehrlich, P. Materialy k ucheniiu o khimioterapii. St. Petersburg, 1911. (Translated from German.)
Khimioterapiia infektsionnykh boleznei (collection of articles). Moscow, 1958.
Strategiia khimioterapii. Moscow, 1960. (Translated from English.)
Larionov, L. F. Khimioterapiia zlokachestvennykh opukholei. Moscow, 1962.
Votchal, B. E. Ocherki klinicheskoi farmakologii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1965.
Kassirskii, I. A., and Iu. L. Milevskaia. Ocherki sovremennoi klinicheskoi terapii, 2nd ed. Tashkent, 1970.

chemotherapy

[‚kē·mō′ther·ə·pē]
(medicine)
Administering chemical substances for treatment of disease, especially cancer and diseases caused by parasites.

chemotherapy

treatment of disease, esp cancer, by means of chemical agents
References in periodicals archive ?
"The side effects of chemotherapy have exhausted my body, but I don't want to be a burden to anyone.
-- Revive Personal Products Co.'s The Natural Dentist brand has launched "Rinse for Relief," an online resource for helping cancer patients who suffer from the mouth sores and other oral ailments that are common side effects of chemotherapy.
It also enables them to explore new tactics to treat inflammatory bowel disease or to ameliorate the side effects of chemotherapy and radiation, which often damage the gut.
Some people have the worry that it might return, or the stress of regular check ups, along with the side effects of chemotherapy.
The side effects of chemotherapy - which can kill normal cells along with cancer cells -include hair loss, nausea and vomiting, diarrhoea and fatigue.
Scientists at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center reported they successfully transplanted brain cancer patients with their own gene-modified blood stem cells in order to protect their bone marrow against the toxic side effects of chemotherapy, Science Daily reported.
Results from the Emilia study also show the drug, T-DM1, significantly reduces the side effects of chemotherapy. While T-DM1 is undergoing further trials, the discovery is being hailed as a major step forward, especially as around 2,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer in the North East every year.
One of the more common side effects of chemotherapy is called venous flare or venous streaking.
The study showed patients treated with the drugs had none of the side effects of chemotherapy and that survival was improved.
Janet Woodcock, who will be spearheading the initiative, distinguished between the events targeted by the initiative and inherent medication risks that are not preventable, such as side effects of chemotherapy. Most preventable injuries are caused by a lack of knowledge about the medication, including by prescribers and patients at the point of care, said Dr.
Australian dairy giant Fonterra reports that an innovative new medical ice cream developed in cooperation with the University of Auckland "has shown early promise for combating some of the unpleasant side effects of chemotherapy." The ice cream, known as ReCharge, has started Phase 2 clinical trials in New Zealand to assess its effectiveness against Chemotherapy Induced Diarrhoea (CID) and anemia, but the 'dessert with a difference' could also reduce weight loss and damage to the immune system during chemotherapy.
In an interview with Anderson Cooper she candidly discussed her own cancer treatments, the side effects of chemotherapy and the relief she got from marijuana ...