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see artichokeartichoke,
name for two different plants of the family Asteraceae (aster family), both having edible parts. The French, or globe, artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is a thistlelike plant of which the globular flower heads are used in the immature state as a salad or vegetable;
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; beetbeet,
biennial or annual root vegetable of the family Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot family). The beet (Beta vulgaris) has been cultivated since pre-Christian times. Among its numerous varieties are the red, or garden, beet, the sugar beet, Swiss chard, and several types of
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Beta cicla, B. vulgardis cicla), a biennial vegetable and ornamental plant. The leaves (leaf varieties) or the petioles (petiole varieties) are used in various foods. Ornamental varieties have beautiful curly, wrinkled leaves with variously colored petioles and leaf veins (mostly red or yellow). Chard is cultivated in Western and Southern Europe, the United States, and other regions. In the USSR it is seldom cultivated.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
A 1.6 unit increase in soil pH reduced silverbeet Cd concentrations by up to 83% for the 100 dry t/ha biosolids treatment, and by up to 53% for the control treatments.
Increasing the rate of biosolids application to the soil increased the concentration of Cd and Zn in silverbeet leaves.
Australian health authorities have set the MPC for Cd in leafy vegetables at 0.1 mg/kg (FWT) (ANZFA 1996), or approximately 0.96 mg/kg DWT, using the average moisture content of the silverbeet harvested in this experiment.
Biosolids Cd and Zn uptake response by silverbeet; uptake response slopes
Figures 1 and 2 show the decrease in the slope of the uptake response to biosolids Cd and Zn with increasing soil pH, by silverbeet grown 22 months after a single biosolids application in 1993-1994.
An increase in soil pH of 1.6 units decreased the slope of the Cd uptake response by 5-fold (1.8 to 0.4) and Zn by 3-fold (2.8 to 0.9) for silverbeet grown 22 months after biosolids were applied to the site (Figs 1 and 2).
4 compares the Zn uptake response by silverbeet grown on soils with pH amended to p[H.sub.C] 4.2 or p[H.sub.C] 5.8.
Despite the low metal levels in our experimental soils, silverbeet leaf tissue Cd concentrations consistently exceeded the MPC set for Cd in foodstuffs, and tissue Zn concentrations were above levels considered potentially phytotoxic.
We have adopted a similar philosophy in establishing the field trials at Glenfield by using a soil type that is not likely to strongly bind biosolids heavy metals and by using accumulator crops, such as silverbeet, to indicate the level of uptake of biosolids metals.
Under acid soil conditions in NSW (p[H.sub.c] <5), the slopes of the uptake responses to biosolids Cd and Zn by silverbeet are much higher (>10-fold for Cd and >20-fold for Zn) than those used in biosolids guidelines in the United States.