Simone de Beauvoir


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Beauvoir, Simone de

(sēmôn` də bōvwär`), 1908–86, French author. A leading exponent of existentialismexistentialism
, any of several philosophic systems, all centered on the individual and his relationship to the universe or to God. Important existentialists of varying and conflicting thought are Søren Kierkegaard, Karl Jaspers, Martin Heidegger, Gabriel Marcel, and Jean-Paul
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, she is closely associated with Jean-Paul SartreSartre, Jean-Paul
, 1905–80, French philosopher, playwright, and novelist. Influenced by German philosophy, particularly that of Heidegger, Sartre was a leading exponent of 20th-century existentialism.
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, with whom she had a life-long relationship. Beauvoir taught philosophy at several colleges until 1943, after which she devoted herself to writing. Her novels All Men Are Mortal (1946, tr. 1955), The Blood of Others (1946, tr. 1948), and The Mandarins (1955, tr. 1956) are interpretations of the existential dilemma. Among her most celebrated works is the profound analysis of the status of women, The Second Sex (1949–50, tr. 1953). This pivotal text was cut by some 15 percent when first translated; an unabridged English translation was finally published in 2010. Beauvoir's study The Marquis de Sade (tr. 1953) is a brilliant, perceptive portrait. Her monumental treatise The Coming of Age (1970, tr. 1972) is an exhaustive historical consideration of the social treatment of the aged in many cultures. Beauvoir's autobiographical writings include Memoirs of a Dutiful Daughter (1958, tr. 1959), The Prime of Life (tr. 1962), Force of Circumstance (1963, tr. 1964), A Very Easy Death (1964, tr. 1966), and All Said and Done (tr. 1974). She also edited Sartre's letters to her (tr. 1994).

Bibliography

See biography by D. Bair (1990); S. de Beauvoir, ed., Quiet Moments in a War: The Letters of Jean-Paul Sartre to Simone de Beauvoir, 1940–1963 (1994); studies by E. Marks (1973), L. Appignanesi (1988), R. Winegarten (1988), K. and E. Fullbrook (1994), and H. Rowley (2005).

de Beauvoir, Simone

See BEAUVOIR.

Beauvoir, Simone de

 

Born Jan. 9, 1908, in Paris. French writer.

Beauvoir graduated from the literary faculty at Paris and from 1931 to 1943 taught philosophy in lycées. In her first novel, She Came to Stay (1943), Beauvoir conveys the ideas of existentialism concerning the absurdity of the world and the incomprehensibility of man. In the novel The Blood of Others (1945) the individual personality is counterposed to society from the same viewpoints. However, Beauvoir leads her characters—members of the modern, individualistic intelligentsia—onto the path of social struggle within the ranks of the Resistance. Her novel The Mandarins (1954, Prix Goncourt) reflects more specifically the ideological and political life of postwar France, as well as the vacillations of part of the intelligentsia between bourgeois and communist ideas. She wrote the play The Useless Mouths (1945), the philosophical essay Pyrrhus and Cineas (1944), a book about the spiritual emancipation of women— The Second Sex (1949)—and the travel sketches America Day by Day (1948). In the second and third books of her autobiographical trilogy (the first was entitled Memories of a Dutiful Daughter, 1958), The Prime of Life (1960) and The Force of Circumstance (1963), Beauvoir, in describing her joint activity with J. P. Sartre and her doubts and searches, is essentially critically reexamining the ideas of existentialism.

WORKS

Djamila Boupacha. Paris, 1962 (Written jointly with G. Halimi.)
La femme rompue. Paris, 1967.
In Russian translation:
Ochen’ legkaia smert’. [Moscow], 1968.
Prelestnye kartinki. [Moscow, 1968.]

REFERENCES

Shkunaeva, I. D. Sovremennaia frantsuzskaia literatura. Moscow, 1961.
Evnina, E. M. Sovremennyi frantsuzskii roman. Moscow, 1962.
Gennari, G. Simone de Beauvoir. Paris [1959].
Jeanson, F. Simone de Beauvoir. Paris, [1966].
Julienne-Caffié, S. Simone de Beauvoir [Paris, 1966.] (Contains a bibliography.)
Gagnebin, L. Simone de Beauvoir ou le refus de l’indifférence. Paris, [1968].
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References in periodicals archive ?
Main features: This consultation concerns the execution of a project management mission to carry out the work hereinafter: handicapped accessibility at work for buildings of Simone de Beauvoir and school for the Hall of ftes.
It is also true that L'Affamee (1948) details the author's passionate obsession with an unnamed person who is instantly recognizable as Simone de Beauvoir.
Existentialists, like Simone de Beauvoir preferred situations that allow the greatest amount of personal choice, but they recognize some compromises are necessary.
Sin embargo, en los mismos textos de Simone de Beauvoir encontramos indicios que nos permiten una comprension no pesimista de la novela La mujer rota, en el sentido de ver en esa obra una escritura de interpelacion a las mujeres respecto de un modo de vivir en la mala fe sus propias existencias y de ponerlas ante si mismas, reclamandoles una accion emancipatoria.
The Simone de Beauvoir Prize for Women's Freedom, created on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of Simone de Beauvoir's birth, distinguishes men, women and voluntary organizations who, like Simone de Beauvoir, a world-renowned French writer and philosopher, fight to defend women's rights wherever they are under threat.
Simone de Beauvoir, en el despliegue de su proyecto de escritura, intentara lograr la supresion de los muros entre filosofia y literatura.
En el epigrafe de Une mort tres douce, Simone de Beauvoir cita, ademas de los mismos dos versos de Thomas que cita Barnes, un verso intermedio: "Old age should burn and rave at close of day;" y aparte lo cierra con punto y coma, y con un punto el primero, "Do not go gentle into that good night.
Simone de Beauvoir hizo de ese largo recorrido fenomenologico del destino, la historia, la formacion, las situaciones, las justificaciones de las mujeres, el lugar de construccion de un comun, de un dialogo con otras y otros.
El debate descubre areas poco exploradas todavia: el "hacerse" de Simone de Beauvoir sucedio dentro de una generacion de mujeres que, al igual que ella, rompieron con muchas servidumbres femeninas, aunque algunas de esas rupturas hayan sido parciales o tentativas.
Genevieve Fraisse, El privilegio de Simone de Beauvoir
Christopher Isherwood, Bernard Malamud, Simone de Beauvoir, Jorge Luis Borges, and Elizabeth Smart die
The idea of "gay rights," it not at all new, but as Simone de Beauvoir did for women, we in the LGBTQA community must investigate why homosexuality has been viewed differently, and how we as a LGBTQA community can indeed move beyond a second sex to, perhaps, a third sex--homosexual sex.