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see carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
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A class of simple sugars containing a chain of 3–10 carbon atoms in the molecule, known as polyhydroxy aldehydes (aldoses) or ketones (ketoses). They are very soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in ether. The number of monosaccharides known is approximately 70, of which about 20 occur in nature. The remainder are synthetic. The existence of such a large number of compounds is due to the presence of asymmetric carbon atoms in the molecules. Aldohexoses, for example, which include the important sugar glucose, contain no less than four asymmetric atoms, each of which may be present in either d or l configuration. The number of stereoisomers rapidly increases with each additional asymmetric carbon atom.

A list of the best-known monosaccharides is given below:

Aldose monosaccharides having 8, 9, and 10 carbon atoms in their chains have been synthesized. See Carbohydrate


A carbohydrate which cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler carbohydrate; a polyhedric alcohol having reducing properties associated with an actual or potential aldehyde or ketone group; classified on the basis of the number of carbon atoms, as triose (3C), tetrose (4C), pentose (5C), and so on.


a simple sugar, such as glucose or fructose, that does not hydrolyse to yield other sugars
References in periodicals archive ?
Reducing ingestion of simple sugars and starches helps, but as people age, most of them produce excess glucose in their liver (gluconeogenesis) that causes higher glucose levels no matter how many carbohydrates they restrict.
The pH and the amount of simple sugars in fresh fruits and vegetables did play a role in furan formation.
The biorefinery works by blending food waste with fungi that help break down the more complex carbohydrates in the food, transforming them into simple sugars.
If an unknown protein doesn't show up on the simple sugars or cellulose, but it shows up on the switchgrass, then we can say something about that gene or protein--that it responds to something the switchgrass is providing.
Honey maple syrup, and fruit juice are all better for you than sugar (organic or not, raw or not), but they are largely simple sugars, so they digest quickly and make you crave more sugar.
Euhus advises staying away from simple sugars that can raise insulin levels, which have been linked to increased breast cancer rates.
He added: "Given the association of obesity and insulin resistance with diets enriched in simple sugars, we find these results promising.
When added to the milk the lactase breaks down the lactose into the easily digested simple sugars glucose and galactose.
Aya, just over a year old, suffers from an inherited disorder called glucose-galactose malabsorption (GGM), which prevents her from absorbing the simple sugars found in breast milk and in generic milk substitutes.
More complex carbohydrates such as cereals and flours can still feed yeast, as the body breaks them down to simple sugars.
According to United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in Oklahoma has been testing ways to make the simple sugars found in watermelons into ethanol, and the USDA is now reporting some success on that front, Dunya TV reported.
This liberates the simple sugars within so that the bacteria can ferment them into three products: acetone, butanol, and ethanol.