monosaccharide

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Related to Simple sugars: complex sugars

monosaccharide:

see carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
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Monosaccharide

A class of simple sugars containing a chain of 3–10 carbon atoms in the molecule, known as polyhydroxy aldehydes (aldoses) or ketones (ketoses). They are very soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in ether. The number of monosaccharides known is approximately 70, of which about 20 occur in nature. The remainder are synthetic. The existence of such a large number of compounds is due to the presence of asymmetric carbon atoms in the molecules. Aldohexoses, for example, which include the important sugar glucose, contain no less than four asymmetric atoms, each of which may be present in either d or l configuration. The number of stereoisomers rapidly increases with each additional asymmetric carbon atom.

A list of the best-known monosaccharides is given below:

Aldose monosaccharides having 8, 9, and 10 carbon atoms in their chains have been synthesized. See Carbohydrate

monosaccharide

[¦män·ō¦sak·ə‚rīd]
(biochemistry)
A carbohydrate which cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler carbohydrate; a polyhedric alcohol having reducing properties associated with an actual or potential aldehyde or ketone group; classified on the basis of the number of carbon atoms, as triose (3C), tetrose (4C), pentose (5C), and so on.

monosaccharide

a simple sugar, such as glucose or fructose, that does not hydrolyse to yield other sugars
References in periodicals archive ?
They can't be digested until broken down into simple sugars, which are then absorbed in the intestines.
A few months later Target proposed a major Shark Tank promotion for Simple Sugars, complete with prominent endcap displays.
This market demand ties in perfectly with the growing commitment by producers to align the amount of simple sugars in their products, but it doesnt come with technical headaches.
* Simple sugars: Replace with complex carbohydrates, including starchy foods such as whole-grain breads, pastas, and cereals, potatoes, brown rice, raw vegetables and fruits, nuts, seeds, and legumes.
Keep simple sugars like most fruits until after your workout.
Not only do we eat too many starches and simple sugars, but our aging liver synthesizes too much glucose internally via a process known as gluconeogenesis.
The biorefinery works by blending food waste with fungi that help break down the more complex carbohydrates in the food, transforming them into simple sugars. Then the resulting sugars are fermented with bacteria that can turn that sugar into succinic acid, a compound that can give beer or wine a salty, bitter or acidic taste and also has a wide range of uses in the pharmaceutical industry, and can be used to make detergents, flavors and fragrances.
If an unknown protein doesn't show up on the simple sugars or cellulose, but it shows up on the switchgrass, then we can say something about that gene or protein--that it responds to something the switchgrass is providing."
Honey maple syrup, and fruit juice are all better for you than sugar (organic or not, raw or not), but they are largely simple sugars, so they digest quickly and make you crave more sugar.
Euhus advises staying away from simple sugars that can raise insulin levels, which have been linked to increased breast cancer rates.
Working with colleagues at the University of Nottingham, they have made the first step towards showing how simple sugars -threose and erythrose-developed.
What we have achieved is the first step on that pathway to show how simple sugars -- threose and erythrose -- originated.