Sinf

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Sinf

 

(plural, asnaf), an association of artisans, organized on the basis of trade or class, in the feudal states of the Muslim East. The asnaf were functionally akin to Western European guilds, but they had only limited internal autonomy in administrative and financial matters.

The first mention of the asnaf in historical sources dates from the ninth century. By the 14th century they had spread throughout the Middle East, but they were most highly developed in the Ottoman Empire. The most important figure in the sinf hierarchy was the master; below him were assistants, and below them, apprentices. With the development of commodity-money relations, the asnaf devoted less time to organizing production; the main functions of the highest-ranking members became the collection of taxes from the artisans and the maintenance of order among the members of the guild.

In the 19th century, Western European economic expansion and the development of capitalist relations in the East led to a decline of the asnaf. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, most of the asnaf disbanded or were abolished.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The twelve-measure long Sinfonia (referred to in the source as 'Sonata' and 'Sinf.') opening the composition returns in the course of the piece as an element separating the respective stanzas.
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(57) Variance is measured using the median among forecasters of the standard deviations calculated from each individual's probability distribution (vGDP and vInf) and the interquartile range of point forecasts across individuals (DvGDP and DvInf.) (58) Skewness is measured using the median of the individual forecasters' mean minus mode (sGDP and sInf) and the difference between the mean and the mode of the cross-forecaster distribution of point forecasts (DsGDP and DsInf).
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* A 10 MHz SINF, output from an intrinsically low jitter voltage controlled crystal oscillator.
Among the marks obtained for the theory courses of the program, depending on the mark for the course SINF 3313--Perinatal care (p [less than or equal to] 0.05), the chances of the student succeeding at the CRNE triple for each one-letter increase in the final mark.
According to this analysis, [NP.sub.2] functions as the DO of the PV rather than as the subject of the infinitive (Sinf).