spend hours stopping and extracting money from the poor and the powerless.
' participation subjected them to marginalisation, given the British ideology of white supremacy.
The two main groups that made up Ottomanism in the early period were the janissaries (elite foot soldiers) and the sipahis
(holders and managers of timar estates and mounted warriors in time of war).
He covers martial race theories, recruiting handbooks, and the Indian Army around 1890-1945; welfare, discipline, and censorship in the army; sipahis
, letters, and writing at the crossroads; re-writing a letter and re-appraising Islam in France 1915-18; mutiny, fabricating court testimony, and hiding in the latrine with the fifth light infantry in Singapore; and the interrogation chamber, the Indian National Army, and the negation of military identities 1941-47.
The bulk of the army consisted of the provincial cavalry forces, known as timarli sipahis
(timariot) after the military fiefs (timar) through which Istanbul compensated them for their service.
The police consist of the frontline sipahis
who, unfortunately, are again the sad casualties in any bomb blast or terrorist operation.
In those vilayets and regions where there are voynuks, voynuks [must gurad]; in the areas where there are no voynuks-musellems and people of [the local] sipahis
[must be engaged].
As such, artisans and peasants, instead of merchants and landlords, were assisted through the dissolution of mercantile oligarchies and restrictions on what sipahis
and other employers could extract from their labor.
This was a complex structure that included various intermediaries who were hired by tax recipients, such as the Sipahis
, to facilitate the working of the system.
Born at Magnesia (April 18, 1590), the son of Sultan Mohammed III; sultan on his father's death (January 22, 1603); agreed to the Treaty of Zsitvatorok (November 11, 1606), which ended the so-called Long War with Austria; suppressed the revolts of the Druse leader Fakhr al-din in Lebanon (1610-1613), and the sipahis
(spahis, feudal cavalry) in Istanbul; worked vigorously to restore effective government to the Ottoman dominions, executing ineffective or corrupt viziers and instituting several new regulations; also noted for his contributions to religious institutions and shrines; died in Istanbul (December 22, 1617) and was succeeded by his son Osman II.
Notable are the sipahis
and janissaries, the Celali revolts, major reform initiatives, and important fortresses and commanders.