James Clark Ross

(redirected from Sir James Clark Ross)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
Related to Sir James Clark Ross: Sir John Ross
James Clark Ross
Birthday
BirthplaceLondon
Died
NationalityBritish
Known for Antarctic exploration

Ross, James Clark

 

Born Apr. 15, 1800, in London; died Apr. 3, 1862, in Aylesbury. British naval officer and polar explorer.

During the years 1818–33, Ross took part in six arctic expeditions in search of the Northwest Passage, three (1819–24) under the leadership of W. E. Parry and two (1818 and 1829–33) led by his uncle J. Ross. In 1830 he crossed the Boothia Peninsula by sledge; in the west he discovered the strait that was later named after him and beyond the strait saw land that he mistook for a peninsula (King William Island). In 1831 he located the north magnetic pole at 70°05’17” N lat. and 96°46’45” Wlong.

In the years 1840–43 he made three summer voyages to the antarctic in the ships Erebus and Terror. Traveling from the Island of Tasmania, Ross in 1841 discovered the sea named after him at 72° S lat., the adjacent physical region (Victoria Land), the volcanoes Mount Erebus and Mount Terror at 77°30’ S lat. (on Ross Peninsula), and the Ross Ice Barrier (a precipice of 45–60 m) beyond the volcanoes. Moving east along this barrier, the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf, he reached 78°04’ S lat. and in 1842 was the first to reach 78°09’30 S lat. In the antarctic summer of 1842–43, however, coming from the Cape of Good Hope south across the Weddell Sea, he reached only 71°30’ S lat. Ross mapped the eastern shore of Victoria Land, but he believed that this region and all other previously discovered antarctic lands were merely islands and not parts of a southern continent.

WORKS

Voyage of Discovery and Research in Southern and Antarctic Regions During the Years 1839–43, vols. 1–2. London, 1847.

REFERENCES

Treshnikov, A. F. Istoriia otkrytiia i issledovaniia Antarktidy. Moscow, 1963.
Magidovich, I. P. Ocherki po istorii geograficheskikh otkrytii. Moscow, 1967.

I. P. MAGIDOVICH

References in periodicals archive ?
A Royal Navy expedition to become the, first to retrace the route taken by Sir John Ross and his nephew Sir James Clark Ross during their unsuccessful search for the Northwest Passage has discovered the remains of the explorers' ship, the Victory.
1831 The magnetic North Pole was located by Sir James Clark Ross on his Arctic exploration expedition 1880 The first telephone call box for public use, in New Haven, Connecticut, went into service 1915 Zeppelins carried out their first raid on London 1935 Driving tests were introduced and L plates made compulsory 1946 The first TV licences were issued in Britain,at a fee of pounds 2 1953 Gordon Richards became the first jockey to be knighted.
The explorer Sir James Clark Ross took a cat aboard HMS Terror on an expedition to the Antarctic in 1842.