Sir Thomas More


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More, Sir Thomas

(Saint Thomas More), 1478–1535, English statesman and author of Utopia, celebrated as a martyr in the Roman Catholic Church. He received a Latin education in the household of Cardinal Morton and at Oxford. Through his contact with the new learning and his friendships with ColetColet, John
, 1467?–1519, English humanist and theologian. While studying on the Continent (1493–96), Colet became interested in classical scholarship and in theories of education. After his residency at Oxford as a lecturer, in 1505 he became dean of St.
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, LylyLyly or Lilly, John
, 1554?–1606, English dramatist and prose writer. An accomplished courtier, he also served as a member of Parliament from 1589 to 1601.
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, and ErasmusErasmus
or Desiderius Erasmus
[Gr. Erasmus, his given name, and Lat., Desiderius=beloved; both are regarded as the equivalent of Dutch Gerard, Erasmus' father's name], 1466?–1536, Dutch humanist, b. Rotterdam.
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, More became an ardent humanist. As a successful London lawyer, he attracted the attention of Henry VIIIHenry VIII,
1491–1547, king of England (1509–47), second son and successor of Henry VII. Early Life

In his youth he was educated in the new learning of the Renaissance and developed great skill in music and sports.
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, served him on diplomatic missions, entered the king's service in 1518, and was knighted in 1521. More held important government offices and, despite his disapproval of Henry's divorce from Katharine of AragónKatharine of Aragón,
1485–1536, first queen consort of Henry VIII of England; daughter of Ferdinand II of Aragón and Isabella of Castile. In 1501 she was married to Arthur, eldest son of Henry VII.
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, he was made lord chancellor at the fall of WolseyWolsey, Thomas
, 1473?–1530, English statesman and prelate, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Early Career

Educated at Magdalen College, Oxford, Wolsey served for a while as master of the Magdalen College school. He was ordained a priest in 1498.
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 (1529). He resigned in 1532 because of ill health and probably because of increasing disagreement with Henry's policies. Because of his refusal to subscribe to the Act of Supremacy, which impugned the pope's authority and made Henry the head of the English Church, he was imprisoned (1534) in the Tower and finally beheaded on a charge of treason.

A man of noble character and deep, resolute religious conviction, More had great personal charm, unfailing good humor, piercing wit, and a fearlessness that enabled him to jest even on the scaffold. His UtopiaUtopia
[Gr.,=no place], title of a book by Sir Thomas More, published in Latin in 1516. The work pictures an ideal state where all is ordered for the best for humanity as a whole and where the evils of society, such as poverty and misery, have been eliminated.
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 (published in Latin, 1516; tr. 1551) is a picture of an ideal state founded entirely on reason. Among his other works in Latin and English are a translation of The Life of John Picus, Earl of Mirandula (1510); a History of Richard III, upon which Shakespeare based his play; a number of polemical tracts against the Lutherans (1528–33); devotional works including A Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation (1534) and a Treatise on the Passion (1534); poems; meditations; and prayers. More was beatified (1886) by a decree of Pope Leo XIII, canonized (1935) by Pius XI, and proclaimed (2000) the patron saint of politicians by John Paul II.

Bibliography

See his complete works (16 vol., 1963–85) and his correspondence, ed. by E. F. Rogers (1947), which contains all his letters except those to Erasmus. The biography of More by his son-in-law William Roper (ed. by E. V. Hitchcock, 1935) has been the principal source of later biographies, particularly the standard modern biography by R. W. Chambers (1935). See also biographies by R. Marius (1985) and P. Ackroyd (1998); studies by R. Pineas (1968), R. Johnson (1969), E. E. Reynolds (1965 and 1969); G. M. Logan (1983), and A. Fox (1985).

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More, Sir Thomas

(1478–1535) English statesman beheaded by King Henry VIII. [Br. Hist.: NCE, 1830]

More, Sir Thomas

(1478–1535) statesman and humanist; be-headed for opposition to Henry VIII’s Act of Supremacy [Br. Hist.: NCE, 1830]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In a letter to members, SAA president Heather James expressed SAA's commitment to diversity, and concluded with a postscript: "To give the last word to Shakespeare, I provide a link to Sir Ian McKellen's performance of Sir Thomas More on strangers." (27) More and McKellen are presented as surrogates for the figure of Shakespeare himself, who comes back to urge values based on tolerance, a sense of shared humanity.
Sir Thomas More. By Anthony Munday and Others; revised by Henry Chettle, Thomas Dekker, Thomas Heywood and William Shakespeare.
GUY, THE PUBLIC CAREER OF SIR THOMAS MORE 203 (1980) [hereinafter GUY, PUBLIC CAREER OF MORE].
In their edition of Sir Thomas More, Vittorio Gabrieli and Giorgio Melchiori cite a 1964 production at the Nottingham Playhouse with "the then promising young actor Ian McKellen" playing More, and add that "McKellen played the role again in a BBC third programme of 1983" (34).
The work on view that grapples most directly perhaps with the historical idea of utopia is Leif Elggren and Carl Michael yon Hausswolff's portentously titled The Annexation of Utopia by the Kingdoms of Elgaland-Vargaland, 2003, a book-shredding and -recycling act for which the Swedish artists pulped multiple copies of a specially printed edition of Sir Thomas More's Utopia (1516), formed the pulp into lovely sheets of raw paper, and hung them out to dry on open-air clotheslines in an attractive triangular installation in which meaning is erased in favor of sheer materiality.
67), despite the fact that it is well attested long before the birth of Wyclif; Sir Thomas More's references to sheep as devouring the peasantry was hardly a reference to the 'enclosures', which took place many years later (p.
February 7, 1478: Birth of humanist and statesman Sir Thomas More: The son of John
Teacher: We've been talking about England under Henry VIII, and today we're going to investigate one of the most celebrated men of the day, Sir Thomas More. More was an author who wrote about the ideal society (Utopia); an attorney; and even the Lord Chancellor, the second most powerful man in England.
NO-ONE who watches the award-winning film, A Man For All Seasons, comes away with anything less than a huge respect for the courage and conviction of Sir Thomas More.
How much money Pitman and actress Jenny Agutter-who was also locked up in Sir Thomas More's old cell-have raised for research into breast cancer will be revealed early next week.
Utopia, by Sir Thomas More. Boston & New York: Bedford/St.
Sir Thomas More's mould-shattering fable about a perfect society on the mythical island of Utopia has generated many subsequent visions and philosophies about the way in which it might be realised.