Sisymbrium


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Sisymbrium

 

a genus of plants of the family Cruciferae. They are annual or perennial herbs with pinnatipartite or pinnatifid leaves. The petals are yellow; the fruit is a silique. There are approximately 90 species of Sisymbrium, found primarily in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, South America (the Andes), and southern Africa. In the USSR there are about 25 species, found along rocky slopes and on the steppes and as weeds in fields, gardens, kitchen gardens, and along roads. Among the widely distributed annual or wintering weeds of the temperate belt are 5. loeselii and hedge mustard (S. officinalis). In southern European Russian and Middle Asia the wintering weed tumbling mustard (S. altissimum) is common, and Volga mustard (S. volgense), which is propagated by root shoots, is found around the lower reaches of the Volga, the Don, and in the Northern Caucasus. 5. polymorphum grows in Middle Asia.

Weed species of Sisymbrium form many small seeds, which contain up to 30 percent fatty oil. They grow well at temperatures of 10°-15°C and come up from a depth of not more than 3 cm. Many species of Sisymbrium are harmful or toxic plants, whose seeds contain glycosides of the sinigrin type, which break down and form mustard oils with a pungent smell and burning taste. The weeds can be controlled by autumn harrowing of winter crop plantings, timely care of plowed crops, and the application of herbicides.

In pastures and fallow lands S. altissimum and S. loeselii are eaten when young by camels and sheep and make good silage. The seeds of some species of Sisymbrium are used in Asia instead of mustard.

Guliavnik, the Russian name for Sisymbrium, is infrequently used to describe species of the genus Descurainia of the family Cruciferae. D. sophia, an annual weed that attacks mainly winter crops, is common in the USSR. Control measures are the same as those for the genus Sisymbrium.

REFERENCES

Sornye rasteniia SSSR, vol. 3. Leningrad, 1935.
Kormovye rasteniia senokosov i pastbishch SSSR, vol. 2. Edited by I. V. Larin. Moscow-Leningrad, 1951.
Gusynin, I. A. Toksikologiia iadovitykh rastenii, 4th ed. Moscow,1962.

L. I. KAZAKEVICH

References in periodicals archive ?
Segundo Souza Filho, Dutra e Silva (1998), o nitrato de potassio afeta positivamente a germinacao das sementes de Senna obtusifolia, Sisymbrium officinale e Hyptis mutabilis, ressaltando a eficiencia desse metodo como agente escarificador.
Shrub-steppe lands typically consisted of a mixture of native plants such as sagebrush Artemisia tridentata, bitterbrush Purshia tridentata, green rabbitbrush Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus, and bunch grasses, and to varying extents exotic invasive species such as cheat grass Bromus tectorum, tumble mustard Sisymbrium altissimum and Russian thistle Salsola kali.
The collected plants were consist of different wild species which are as follow, True indigo (Indigo feratinctoria), Sugar cane (Saccharium officinarum), Greater plantain (Plantago majo), Harmel (Peganum harmala), Kerda (Capparis decidua), Baker (Sophramolli), Common blue violet (Viola sororia), Basket flower (Centaurea uniflora), Bermude gran (Cynodon dactylon), Poa (Poa annua), Horse weed ( Conyza canadensis), Sage brush (Artemisia tridintata), Babylon willow (Salix babylonia), Indian heliotripi (Heliotropium indicum), London racket (Sisymbrium Iris) and Knot weed (Polygonum coccineum).
Otros coprolitos y macrorrestos flotados permitieron observar escasas semillas de Sisymbrium sp., de uso seguramente estacional, como un alimento suplementario (Bueno 2004; Holden 1991).
DC, Velezia rigida L., Anagallis arvensis L., Brachipodium sp., Bromus matritensis L., Calendula arvensis L., Campanula sp., Convolvulus altheoides L., Crepis sp., Medicago sp., Papaver rhoeas L., Rapistrum rugosum L., Scabiosa sp., Sisymbrium sp., Sonchus arvensis L., Trigonella monspeliaca L., etc.
The following species of plants were presented at that plot: Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth., Bromopsis inermis (Leyss.) Holub, Artemisia absinthium L., Artemisia austriaca Jacq., Artemisia campestris L., Nonea pulla (L.) DC., Sisymbrium loeselii L., and Chamaecytisus ruthenicus (Fisch.
This brings the number of 2,4-D resistant species in Australia to four, joining wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) and Indian hedge mustard (Sisymbrium orientale).
cimarrona trastornos (sib Echium cutaneos y violaceum L.) vulnerario borraja Contra "dolor Jujuy (CYC) de costado" y pulmonia BRASSICACEAE Descurainia yerba de Contra resfrios La Pampa (CP) erodiifolia resfrio (Phil.) Prantl ex Reiche (sub Sisymbrium canescens Nutt.) Lepidium quimpe Antigangrenoso, Salta (CYC) didymum L.
The following plant species were identified: Amaranthus retroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Erigeron canadensis, Sisymbrium loeselii and Cucurbita pepo.
The records include the native species Gratiola neglecta and Verbena bracteata, and the nonnative species Artemisia vulgaris, Hordeum vulgare, and Sisymbrium officinale.
* radish Sinapis alba L * white mustard Sisymbrium altissimum L.