Sisymbrium


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Sisymbrium

 

a genus of plants of the family Cruciferae. They are annual or perennial herbs with pinnatipartite or pinnatifid leaves. The petals are yellow; the fruit is a silique. There are approximately 90 species of Sisymbrium, found primarily in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, South America (the Andes), and southern Africa. In the USSR there are about 25 species, found along rocky slopes and on the steppes and as weeds in fields, gardens, kitchen gardens, and along roads. Among the widely distributed annual or wintering weeds of the temperate belt are 5. loeselii and hedge mustard (S. officinalis). In southern European Russian and Middle Asia the wintering weed tumbling mustard (S. altissimum) is common, and Volga mustard (S. volgense), which is propagated by root shoots, is found around the lower reaches of the Volga, the Don, and in the Northern Caucasus. 5. polymorphum grows in Middle Asia.

Weed species of Sisymbrium form many small seeds, which contain up to 30 percent fatty oil. They grow well at temperatures of 10°-15°C and come up from a depth of not more than 3 cm. Many species of Sisymbrium are harmful or toxic plants, whose seeds contain glycosides of the sinigrin type, which break down and form mustard oils with a pungent smell and burning taste. The weeds can be controlled by autumn harrowing of winter crop plantings, timely care of plowed crops, and the application of herbicides.

In pastures and fallow lands S. altissimum and S. loeselii are eaten when young by camels and sheep and make good silage. The seeds of some species of Sisymbrium are used in Asia instead of mustard.

Guliavnik, the Russian name for Sisymbrium, is infrequently used to describe species of the genus Descurainia of the family Cruciferae. D. sophia, an annual weed that attacks mainly winter crops, is common in the USSR. Control measures are the same as those for the genus Sisymbrium.

REFERENCES

Sornye rasteniia SSSR, vol. 3. Leningrad, 1935.
Kormovye rasteniia senokosov i pastbishch SSSR, vol. 2. Edited by I. V. Larin. Moscow-Leningrad, 1951.
Gusynin, I. A. Toksikologiia iadovitykh rastenii, 4th ed. Moscow,1962.

L. I. KAZAKEVICH

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Otros coprolitos y macrorrestos flotados permitieron observar escasas semillas de Sisymbrium sp.
The following plant species were identified: Amaranthus retroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Erigeron canadensis, Sisymbrium loeselii and Cucurbita pepo.
The records include the native species Gratiola neglecta and Verbena bracteata, and the nonnative species Artemisia vulgaris, Hordeum vulgare, and Sisymbrium officinale.
radish Sinapis alba L * white mustard Sisymbrium altissimum L.
2013) studying water, ethanol and chloroform extracts of Brassica nigra on two crops, Trifolium alexandrinum and Triticum aestivum, and two weeds, Phalaris paradoxa and Sisymbrium irio, showing that root growth was more affected than shoot growth.
Important species in the more-arid areas included winter annuals such as globe mallows (Sphaeralcea), native and nonnative mustard species (Brassica, Sisymbrium, Lesquerella, Descurainia), nievitas (Coryphantha), plantains (Plantago), filaree (Erodium cicutarium), California poppy (Eschscholzia mexicana), broadleaf combseed (Pectocarya platycarpa), and red-maids (Calandrinia ciliata).
Genes involved in ethylene and gibberellins metabolism are required for endosperm-limited germination of Sisymbrium officinale L.
Erodium neuradifolium, Plantago afra, Senecio breviflorus, Sisymbrium erysimoides and Spergula fallax).
crus-galli (9 h), Sisymbrium irio (6 h), Sonchus oleraceus (4 h) (Dahlquist et al.
Common name Scientific name Class Life cycle * Downy brome Bromus tectorum Grass WA London rocket Sisymbrium irio Broadleaf WA Creeping thistle Circium arvense Broadleaf CP Yellow goats-beard Tragopogon dubius Grass SP Field bindweed Convolvulus arvensis Broadleaf CP Bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon Grass CP Foxtail barely Hordeum jubatum Grass SA Dandelion Taraxacum officinale Broadleaf SP Quackgrass Agropyron repence Grass CP Russian knapweed Acroptilon repens Broadleaf CP lambsquarters Chenopodium album Broadleaf SA Plantain Plantago spp.
Dentro de las plantas anuales se encuentran Sisymbrium frutescens, Descurainia canescens, Portulaca sp.