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Sitting Bull,c.1831–1890, Native American chief and spiritual leader, Sioux leader in the battle of the Little Bighorn. He rose to prominence in the Sioux warfare against the whites and the resistance of the Native Americans under his leadership to forced settlement on a reservation led to a punitive expedition. In the course of the resistance occurred the Native American victory on the Little Bighorn, where George Armstrong CusterCuster, George Armstrong,
1839–76, American army officer, b. New Rumley, Ohio, grad. West Point, 1861. Civil War Service
Custer fought in the Civil War at the first battle of Bull Run, distinguished himself as a member of General McClellan's staff in the
..... Click the link for more information. and his men were defeated and killed on June 25, 1876. Sitting Bull and some of his followers escaped to Canada, but returned (1881) on a promise of a pardon and were settled on a reservation. In 1885 he appeared in Buffalo BillBuffalo Bill,
1846–1917, American plainsman, scout, and showman, b. near Davenport, Iowa. His real name was William Frederick Cody. His family moved (1854) to Kansas, and after the death of his father (1857) he set out to earn the family living, working for supply trains
..... Click the link for more information. 's Wild West Show, but his championship of the Native American cause was not at an end; he encouraged the Sioux to refuse to sell their lands. Fearful that he would support the Ghost DanceGhost Dance,
central ritual of the messianic religion instituted in the late 19th cent. by a Paiute named Wovoka. The religion prophesied the peaceful end of the westward expansion of whites and a return of the land to the Native Americans.
..... Click the link for more information. religion, soldiers and Native American police sought to arrest him; he was killed when his supporters sought to stop his seizure by police. He was buried in North Dakota, but in 1954 his remains were removed to South Dakota.
See J. M. Carroll, ed., The Arrest and Killing of Sitting Bull: A Documentary (1986); biographies by S. Vestal (rev. ed. 1957, repr. 1972), A. B. Adams (1973), and K. B. Smith (1987); N. Philbrick, The Last Stand (2010).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
(1831–1890) Indian chief who united the Sioux tribes against the white men. [Am. Hist.: EB, IX: 243–244]
See: Wild West
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
Indian name Tatanka Yotanka. ?1831--90, American Indian chief of the Teton Dakota Sioux. Resisting White encroachment on his people's hunting grounds, he led the Sioux tribes against the US Army in the Sioux War (1876--77) in which Custer was killed. The hunger of the Sioux, whose food came from the diminishing buffalo, forced his surrender (1881). He was killed during renewed strife
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
Sitting Bull (b. Tatanka Yotanka)(?1831–90) Hunkpapa Sioux leader and medicine man; born on the Grand River in S.D. Even as a youth he was known among the Sioux as a warrior; by 1856 he headed the Strong Heart warrior society and in 1866 he became chief of the northern hunting Sioux. Bitterly opposed to white encroachment, he made peace with the U.S. government (1868) when it guaranteed him a large reservation free of white settlers. Following the discovery of gold in the Black Hills (1874), he joined with the Arapaho and Cheyenne to fight against the invaders. Although head of the war council, he remained in the encampment and performed a rite while his warriors defeated Col. George Custer's men at the Little Bighorn (1876). He and his followers attempted to move to Canada, but the Canadian government refused to accept them, and they returned to the U.S.A. in 1881. After serving a two-year imprisonment, he traveled with Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show (1885–86). He was arrested for supporting the Ghost Dance movement and killed by Indian policemen—just prior to the battle of Wounded Knee.
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.