Comparative dietary evaluations of an extinct Giraffid (Sivatherium
hendeyi) (Mammalia Giraffidae Sivatheriinae) from Langebaanweg South Africa (early Pliocene).
Progiraffa exigua and Giraffokeryx punjabiensis belongs to genus Progiraffa and Giraffokeryx respectively, Giraffa priscilla and Giraffa punjabiensis are species of genus Giraffa, the higher taxon for species Bramatherium megacephalum and Bramatherium grande is Bramatherium and Sivatherium giganteum is the species of genus Sivatherium.
While comparatively high EH was observed in Sivatherium hendeyi (Pliocene giraffid) by Franz-Odendaal et al.
A new Sivatherium
giganteum from Pabbi Hills of Potwar Pakistan.
Key words: Giraffids, Sivatherium, Upper Siwaliks, Pleistocene, Pinjor Formation.
The first scientific mention of the Siwalik giraffes goes back to 1836 when Falconer and Cautley described a large massive giraffe, Sivatherium giganteum from the Upper Siwaliks.
Giraffinae includes the genus Giraffa, and the subfamily Sivatheriinae is represented by Sivatherium, Bramatherium, Helladotherium, Hydaspitherium and 2007).
The specimens under study are smaller in size, so they cannot be directly compared to the maxillae and mandibles of the large subfamily Sivatheriinae (Helladotherium, Hydaspitherium, Vishnutherium, Sivatherium, and Bramatherium) (Khan et al., 2010; Bhatti et al., 2012a, b).
The specimens under study are smaller in size so cannot be compared with the large taxa of the subfamily Sivatheriinae (Helladotherium, Hydaspitherium, Vishnutherium, Sivatherium
and Bramatherium) (Khan et al., 2010; Bhatti et al., 2012a).
Equidae Camelidae and Sivatherium
. Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis Part-9 139 pp.
They are mainly represented in the Siwaliks by the large-sized Sivatheriinae namely, Bramatherium, Hydaspitherium, Helladotherium, and Sivatherium
(Matthew, 1929; Colbert, 1935; Gentry, 1997; Geraads and Gulec, 1999; Bhatti,2005; Kostopoulos and Sarac, 2005).
Of these, the Pinjor Formation, which spans 2.58-0.6 Ma (Dennell et al., 2008), is the longest and most fossiliferous including larger taxa such as Elephas hysudricus, Stegodon insignis, Rhinoceros, Sivatherium
, Equus sivalensis, Sus spp., Hemibos spp., Bos acutifrons and Cervus palaeindicus (Nanda, 2002, 2008).