Sixtus IV


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Related to Sixtus IV: Francesco della Rovere, Pope Sixtus V

Sixtus IV

(sĭk`stəs), 1414–84, pope (1471–84), an Italian named Francesco della Rovere (b. near Savona); successor of Paul II. He was made general of his order, the Franciscans, in 1464 and became (1467) a cardinal. Sixtus was expected to be a reformer, but he was too much embroiled in political difficulties. The struggle with the French monarchy over the control of the church in France was complicated by Louis XI's efforts to replace Ferdinand I of Naples with a Frenchman. A quarrel with Lorenzo de' MediciMedici, Lorenzino de'
, 1515–47, member of the cadet branch of the Medici family. A boon companion of Alessandro de' Medici, he secretly plotted the duke's murder—possibly out of republican convictions.
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 became critical after the Pazzi conspiracyPazzi conspiracy
, 1478, plot against Lorenzo de' Medici (Lorenzo il Magnifico) and his brother Giuliano, designed to end the hegemony of the Medici in the Florentine state and to enlarge papal territory.
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 (1478), since an important instigator was Girolamo Riario, nephew of Sixtus, and the pope seems to have had prior knowledge of the plot. He waged war on Florence afterward. Though a reconciliation was made in 1479, Lorenzo joined Louis XI in threatening schism. Relations with Italian states other than Florence were also unhappy. Sixtus consented (1478) to the establishment of the Spanish InquisitionInquisition
, tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church established for the investigation of heresy. The Medieval Inquisition

In the early Middle Ages investigation of heresy was a duty of the bishops.
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 and then found the Spanish ignoring his rebukes for illegal procedure and jurisdiction and his demands for moderation. He welcomed into the Papal States the Jews expelled from Spain. The behavior of his favored nephews was disgraceful; a happy exception was Giuliano della Rovere (later Pope Julius II). Sixtus was an excellent administrator of the city and did much to improve and beautify Rome. He was an important benefactor of the Vatican Library, and he founded the Sistine Chapel. He summoned Josquin Desprez to Rome and legislated for the improvement of church music. He was succeeded by Innocent VIII.
References in periodicals archive ?
Even better, in SimonettaAAEs chronicle, Sixtus IV gets his comeuppance some 50 years later, right inside the Sistine Chapel he had built to the glory of God and himself.
Figure 3, labeled as the Paliotto of Sixtus IV is, in fact, the Flemish tapestry referred to on page 28.
Peter's acting as a Cappella Palatina until the building of the Sistine Chapel by Sixtus IV (dedicated in 1483).
Her book, organized in chronological order, tells the story of Julius, from the time of the election of his uncle, Sixtus IV, to the papacy, to his own death, when, thanks to his increasing isolation from those surrounding him and to the outbursts of his protean temperament, he came to be known as il papa terribile Throughout, the emphasis is on the first of the subtitle's key words: Julius as a warrior, consequently Julius as a political figure, one of Italy's major princes.
Born in 1452, the son of Antonio Colonna, Prince of Salerno, and grandnewphew of Pope Martin V; fought with Neapolitan forces against Venice and Pope Sixtus IV during the War of Ferrara (1482-1484); supported Pope Innocent VIII and the Neapolitan barons when they rebelled against Ferdinand I of Naples (1485-1486); assisted Charles VIII of France in his conquest and occupation of Naples (February-May 1495); then joined with Ferdinand II of Naples in driving the French out of Naples (late 1495); served with Gonsalvo de Cordoba's Spanish army in victories over the French at Cerignola (April 28, 1503) and the Garigliano River (December 28); fought for the Spanish against the Venetians at La Motta (October 7, 1513); captured by a French cavalry raid at Villefranche (in Savoy) (summer?
A tribunal for suppressing heresy in Spain, established by Ferdinand and Isabella in 1478, with the reluctant consent of Pope Sixtus IV.
The illegitimate daughter of the duke of Milan, Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Caterina married Girolamo Riario, favourite nephew of Pope Sixtus IV, in 1477 and became regent of Imola and Forli when her husband was assassinated in 1488.
Perugino was responsible for decorating the walls of the Sistine Chapel for Sixtus IV in the 1480s, and brought together painters--including Botticelli and Signorelli--to assist him.
Art historians look at the della Rovere family as a whole--from Pope Sixtus IV della Rovere (1414-84) to Francesco Maria II, last Duke of Urbino (1549-1631)--as they faced distinct but not uncommon issues at any given time during the dynasty's two-century floriat.
In 1999, Piero Scapecchi drew attention to a manuscript that contained Platina's autograph corrections for his presentation copy for Sixtus IV and the first printed edition of the Lives.
For centuries, theories swirled that Pope Sixtus IV was involved in the assassination of the powerful Medici brothers in Florence, Italy.
He is, rather, the fil rouge or vector leading Rowland's description of the profoundly nepotistic papacy from the Roman Academy in the days of Giulio Sanseverino and Pope Sixtus IV right through to the inherent corruption of the court of Leo X de' Medici.