Scania(skān`yə, –ēə), historic province of extreme S Sweden, now included in Malmöhus co. Skåne, the scene of many battles, was held by Denmark until 1658, when it was conquered by Charles X of Sweden. Of note are numerous prehistoric dolmens and tumuli and many medieval castles and manors.
(also Scania), a peninsula in southern Sweden. Skåne is a plain composed mainly of morainic deposits overlying limestones and other rocks of the Upper Cretaceous period. Individual ridges of granites and gneisses rise to elevations of 226 m. The plains are cultivated; the slopes of the ridges have oak and beech forests and heaths. The city of Malmö is located on the peninsula.
In the Middle Ages Skåne belonged to Denmark. Because of its comparatively mild climate and fertile soils it was the most highly developed agricultural region of Scandinavia. The ecclesiastical and administrative center of Scandinavia was located in Lund, a city on Skåne, after the creation of the Lund archbishopric in 1104. Beginning in the mid-14th century, Skåne was the object of a bitter struggle between Denmark, Sweden, and the Hanseatic League. After the Roskilde Peace of 1658, which concluded the war fought between Denmark and Sweden during the period 1657-58, it was transferred permanently to Sweden. Denmark made an unsuccessful attempt to regain Skåne in the Scanian War of 1675–79.