Skopje

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Skopje

(skôp`yə) or

Skoplje

(skôp`əlyə), city (1994 pop. 444,760), capital of North Macedonia, on the Vardar River. It is an important transportation and trade center as well as an industrial hub where chemicals, cement, machinery, and diverse light manufactures are produced. The city is also the see of an Orthodox Eastern archbishop and the seat of a Macedonian university (founded 1949).

Dating from Roman times, Skopje was captured by the Serbs in 1282 and was the scene (1346) of Stephen DušanStephen Dušan or Dushan
, c.1308–1355, king (1331–46) and czar (1346–55) of Serbia, son of Stephen Uros III. He is also known as Stephen Uros IV.
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's coronation as czar of Serbia. It fell to the Turks in 1392 and until the fall of Constantinople (1453) was considered the second city of Turkey. Skopje was taken by the Serbs in the Balkan Wars of 1912–13 and was included in Yugoslavia in 1918. It was occupied by the Germans during World War II. After liberation, it became the capital of the Yugoslavian constituent republic of Macedonia from 1945 until 1991, when Macedonia (North Macedonia from 2019) declared its independence.

Among the many ancient landmarks of the city are the Stone Bridge across the Vardar (said to date from Roman times and rebuilt in the 15th cent.), the Turkish citadel, the fine Mosques of Mustafa Pasha and of Sultan Murad (both 15th cent.), and the bazaar. Much of the city had to be rebuilt after a disastrous earthquake in 1963, and a controversial rebuilding project has transformed the city center since 2010.

Skopje

 

(also Skoplje), a city in southern Yugoslavia; capital of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia. Population, 350,000 (1973). Situated on the Vardar River, Skopje is a transportation junction on the Belgrade-Thessaloniki railroad line. It accounts for one-half of Macedonia’s industrial production. Most of the industry is involved in processing the varied agricultural products of the Vardar River valley. The city is Yugoslavia’s major producer of tobacco goods. Other activities include beer brewing, fruit and vegetable canning, flour milling, meat-packing, and soapmaking. Factories produce leather, shoes, and textiles. Alkaloids are processed from the opium poppy. There is also cottage industry, especially rug weaving. Since the establishment of the people’s power, metallurgy has been developed in Skopje. Aluminum products and agricultural machines are manufactured, as well as chemicals, glass, cement, and furniture.

The Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts and the University of Skopje are located in the city.

Skopje arose in the sixth century near the classical city of Scupi, which had been destroyed by an earthquake. In the ninth and tenth centuries it was part of the First Bulgarian Kingdom. In the late 13th century it became part of the Serbian State. During the rule of Stefan Dušan (1331-55) it was the capital of the Empire of the Serbs and Greeks. From 1392 to 1912, Skopje was under the power of the Turks. In 1913 it became part of the Kingdom of Serbia, and in 1918 part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Yugoslavia since 1929). In April 1941, Skopje was occupied by fascist troops, and from 1941 to 1944 it was the center of the antifascist struggle in the Vardar region of Macedonia. It was liberated from the fascists in November 1944. Skopje became the capital of the People’s Republic of Macedonia (since 1963, the Socialist Repulbic of Macedonia), part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

In 1963 an earthquake destroyed approximately 80 percent of the buildings in Skopje. The city has been rebuilt with aid from many countries, particulary socialist countries. Before the earthquake, Skopje had an early Byzantine fortress and an aqueduct dating from the sixth century, as well as Turkish mosques, inns, and other buildings dating from the 15 th to the 19th century. Restoration and reconstuction work was begun in 1963. The center of the city is being built according to plans by the Japanese architect Tange Kenzo. New structures include the Archives of Skopje, the Skopje Pedagogical Academy, and the Macedonian People’s Theater. Housing is also being constructed; the city has a housing-construction combine built with the help of the USSR.

Near Skopje are the ruins of the city of Scupi, featuring remains of a theater, thermae, a basilica, and a necropolis. There are several churches with frescoes near Skopje; they include the Church of St. Panteleimon in Nerezi (1164), the church of the Monastery of St. Nikita near Čučer (1307-08), which has frescoes by the masters Mihajlo and Eutihije, and the Church of St. Nikola in Ljuboten (1337). [23–1537–]

Skopje

the capital of (the Former Yugoslav Republic of) Macedonia, on the Vardar River: became capital of Serbia in 1346 and of Macedonia in 1945; suffered a severe earthquake in 1963; university (1949). Pop.: 449 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
La firma del Acuerdo Interino permitio: a) la entrada de la ARYM en varios organismos internacionales, como la Organizacion para la Seguridad y Cooperacion en Europa (osce) o el Consejo de Europa en octubre y noviembre de 1995 respectivamente; (43) b) supuso el inicio de una intensa relacion comercial que convirtio a Grecia en un importante socio comercial para Skopie; (44) y c) que la Union Europea estableciera relaciones formales con la ARYM en enero de 1996.
Sin embargo, la firma del acuerdo se vio empanada por el progresivo conflicto armado que desde inicios de ano enfrentaba a las autoridades de Skopie con la minoria albanesa del norte del pais.
Pese a estas cuestiones, no dejaban de reconocerse avances a Skopie, que seguia en la senda europea y occidental con firmeza.
Por su parte, Skopie se nego a aceptarla y propuso que, internacionalmente, se utilizara "Republica de Macedonia" y que Grecia empleara la denominacion de ARYM.
Una nueva propuesta de Nimetz se planteo de acuerdo a tres puntos: (54) a) el nombre constitucional de "Republica de Macedonia" estaria escrito en cirilico y seria de uso interno por parte del gobierno de Skopie; b) "Republica de Macedonia (Skopie) seria usado para las relaciones internacionales y se sugeriria su uso para las relaciones bilaterales.
Sin embargo, Grecia presento la propuesta de aplazar la invitacion a Skopie y el secretario general de la OTAN, Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, promovio un acuerdo mutuo entre los miembros donde se afirmaba que el rechazo de la invitacion a la ARYM se debia a no haber encontrado una solucion a la disputa y se invitaba a las partes a negociar.
Pese a que la OTAN actuo con base al consenso, Skopie no dudo que sus aspiraciones euroatlanticas habian sido frustradas por la posicion griega y su amenaza de veto.
(59) Sin embargo, ahora las principales reticencias vinieron de parte del gobierno de Skopie, que se mostraba receloso para efectuar los cambios que la propuesta le exigia.
Sin embargo, el veto griego aparecio y ni el apoyo del Parlamento Europeo en 2010 le ha servido a Skopie, hasta el dia de hoy, para abrir negociaciones con la Union Europea respecto a su incorporacion.
Grecia, en ambas citas, justifico su oposicion en la denuncia de las ambiciones territoriales y nacionalistas de Skopie y en la usurpacion de una identidad que no le pertenece a su vecino.
EL CONFLICTO COMO CONDICIONANTE DE LA POLITICA EXTERIOR DE SKOPIE
(64) La medida dio un voto de confianza a los Balcanes Occidentales en su camino hacia la integracion europea, aunque en el caso de Skopie no vendria acompanada de mayores esperanzas para iniciar con la segunda fase.