Subsequent radiography confirmed the presence of this defect, which is believed to be a slag inclusion
(Marron and Kosnik, 2008).
Figure 1 shows a liquid slag inclusion
where sand grains have been embedded in the slag material, creating a liquid sand-slag agglomerate.
Additionally, impurities like slag inclusions
collect at the inside bore of the pipe which is usually machined.
occur when the slag gets trapped inside of the weld metal, which could weaken weld components and reduce serviceability.
Second, since the ESR process has a considerable capability for the removal of large refractory or slag inclusions
, the use of complex filters and tundish arrangements in the VIM can be minimised.
They cover component casting, cast house processes, casting hydrodynamics, heat transport during component casting and cast house processes, structure and structure formation in cast materials, microsegregation in alloys, heat treatment and plastic forming, precipitation of pores and slag inclusions
during the casting process, solidification and cooling shrinkage of metals and alloys, and macrosegregation in alloys.
And what happens is that we don't have any type of slag inclusions
, which keeps the welds really clean.
Puddled iron -- the material used byBartholdi and Eiffel -- is relatively soft and contains a high proportion of slag inclusions
, silica fragments and other impurities.
Conclusions on how to avoid cracks, solidification pores, slag inclusions
and other defects of the castings, can be drawn from the theoretical models.
The test mold pour weight must be calculated onto the pour weight and cycle time so that there is sufficient metal in the ladle after pouring the castings to produce quality test bars without slag inclusions
or faded iron that will not meet specifications.
2 T leads to the noticeable deterioration in the quality of a lateral surface of the ingot and appearance of slag inclusions
at the ingot periphery (Figure 3).
If it is assumed that most AE activity, mainly the signals with large amplitude, during the first loading of an incomplete penetrated weld results from the fracture of slag inclusions
and the opening of poorly bonded material, the observed distribution indicates clearly that these AE events mainly take place at lower loads.