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a South Slavonic language spoken in Slovenia, closely related to Serbo-Croat



the language of the Slovenes and one of the official languages of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; it belongs to the South Slavic group of languages. There are approximately 2 million speakers of Slovene, including approximately 1.6 million in Slovenia (according to the 1971 census); there are also speakers living in the areas of Austria, Italy, and Hungary bordering on Yugoslavia. The language has seven groups of dialects.

The phonetic peculiarities of literary Slovene include the opposition of long and short vowels under stress and open and closed vowels under stress, the vowel e [ə] in place of Proto-Slavic Ъ and b, the absence of an opposition of palatalized and unpalatalized consonants, and the change of l and ν to at the end of a syllable. The dynamic and musical stress is free (movable). Morphological features include the preservation of the dual, pluperfect, and supine and the loss of the aorist and imperfect, the vocative forms, and the consonant alternations in the nominal declension. The oldest written documents are the Freising Texts of the late tenth or the early 11th century.

The Slovene literary language was formed by the end of the 19th century. The modern literary language functions alongside spoken variants, among which there are significant phonetic and lexical differences. Norms for a common spoken language are being formulated in the second half of the 20th century. Slovene is written in the Latin alphabet.


Florinskii, T. D. Lektsii po slavianskomu iazykoznaniiu, part 1. Kiev, 1895.
Ramovš, F. Historična gramatika slovenskega jezika, vol. 2: Konzonantizem; vol. 7: Dialekti. Ljubljana, 1924–35.
Ramovš, F. Kratka zgodovina slovenskega jezika: I. Ljubljana, 1936.
Toporišič, J. Slovenski knjižni jezik, vols. Maribor, 1965-70.
Bajec, A., R. Kolarič, and M. Rupel. Slovenská slovnica. Ljubljana, 1973.
Kotnik, J. Slovenskoruski slovar, 2nd ed. Ljubljana, 1967.
Slovar slovenskega knjižnega jezika, vol. 1. Ljubljana, 1970.


References in periodicals archive ?
1], to the balanced corpus of Slovene KRES, and the reference corpus of Slovene Gigafida, while Section 5 gives some conclusions and directions for future work.
This prompts three significant changes in the way the occupation proceeds: The Germans focus less on converting Slovenians into Germans; the collaborators within the local defense forces are used to fight against partisan forces more often; and surveillance is turned on the Slovene population to root out anti-German elements.
I found Slovenes to be not only gracious and overwhelmingly openhearted, but also incredibly sophisticated, stylish and creative.
As the Baroque declined and new stylistic tendencies began to appear in church and secular music, an important Slovene composer came to the fore.
The Slovene Armed Forces underwent a major reorganization from 2003 to 2005, with the goal of changing from a conscription-based territorial defense force to a professional, deployable, and combat-capable military within NATO.
And Novak too, like many of his predecessors, likes to emphasise the importance of language and literature, especially poetry, for the Slovene nation.
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23) The approval numbers are still larger than those who oppose membership, but the polling does raise questions about the current political mood among the wider Slovene population.
Events were graciously hosted once again by the Slovene Writers' Association, and organized by Iztok Osojnik; the official languages were Slovene, English, French, and German.
Dressed as a commodities trader, Xhafa went to the railroad station of the Slovene capital and, gesturing like a broker on the floor of the exchange, shouted the schedules and destinations of departing and arriving trains to the public-underscoring the relationship between the ebb and flow of "human resources" and the oscillations of the international financial system.
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The Slovene doctor, head of the burns department at the local hospital, had arranged for the Slovene patients to be moved into the corridors so that the injured survivors might have the best care.