Smallholders Party

Smallholders’ Party

 

(Kisgazdapárt) of Hungary, more accurately, the Independent Agrarian Party of Smallholders, Agricultural Workers, and Urban Dwellers (Független Kisgazda, Földmunkás és Polgári Agrárpárt), founded in 1909.

The Smallholders’ Party united representatives of the affluent peasantry and some of the landholders. The party repeatedly participated in the governments of bourgeois Hungary. From 1922 to 1930 together with I. Bethlen’s group it formed the governing United Party. In 1930 it was reestablished as a separate party.

The Smallholders’ Party participated in the resistance movement in World War II (1939–45) and was outlawed when Hungary was occupied by fascist German troops in March 1944. In May 1944 it joined the Hungarian Front, which had been formed on the initiative of the Communists. The party’s left wing, which was headed by I. Dobi from 1937 and which reflected essentially the interests of the peasantry and agricultural workers, supported the front’s program. However, its right wing, led by F. Nagy, B. Varga, and others, opposed the democratic transformations in Hungary. In the 1945 elections the Smallholders’ Party obtained 57 percent of the mandate.

After the discovery from December 1946 to May 1947 of a reactionary plot by F. Nagy and other reactionary leaders of the party, who acted with the support of the Catholic Church, the influence of the reactionary forces in the party declined drastically. The left wing headed by Dobi assumed the party leadership. The majority of the members of the Smallholders’ Party participated in the People’s Patriotic Front. An attempt by the right wing to revive the party as a base of the exploiting classes during the counterrevolutionary revolt of 1956 failed completely.

A. I. PUSHKASH

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The date of the day of commemoration refers to the fact that on this day in 1947 the occupying Soviet authorities arrested Bla Kovcs, the Secretary General of the Independent Smallholders Party, despite his parliamentary immunity.
In the following months they tried to decomposition of Smallholders Party, which they did in cooperation with the Soviets in the Allied Control Commission, and finally they met this goal with help of the unions and the secret police and manipulated justice.
The Communists won 22 % of votes in the manipulated parliamentary elections held in August of 1947, disorganized Smallholders party ended up in third place with 15.
On the basis of universal adult suffrage with secret balloting - introduced for the first time - the Independent Smallholders Party secured 57 per cent of the votes, while the two largest among the other parties, the Communist Party and the Social Democratic Party, scored only 17 per cent each.
Using sources discovered during years of archival research, Palasik describes in great detail how the Communist Party under its very intelligent yet manipulative leader, Matyas Rakosi, undermined the positionw of the Smallholders Party by cynically as-sociating it with a small, right-wing conspiracy, seemingly aimed at overthrowing the new republic.
Democratic Party, the Smallholders Party, the National Peasant's
similar charges resulting in the collapse of the Smallholders Party.
Socialists, and Eckhardt, a member of the Smallholders Party, also
Speaker of the House and member of the Smallholders Party, accused Peyer