Approximately 70 years later, on the opposite side of the American continent, Wanapum tribal leader Smohalla is reported to have said to U.
The dream of Smohalla and Wovoka that a messiah would rid the American continents of Europeans was, like the early Jewish messiah, discarded, but it evolved into a smoldering sense of entitlement that cannot be debated.
At Pna, on the Columbia, in the late nineteenth century, a mystic among them called Smohalla
led the chants of the Dreamers.
20) In the mid-1850s, other Nativistic religious movements in the Northwest were underway, led by Smohalla
, the Wanapam dreamer-prophet and Washani religious revitalizer.
And indeed, two hundred years later the Indian chief Smohalla
had not yet been weaned from these notions and practices.
Leaders such as Neolin, Handsome Lake, Tenskatawa, Yonaguska, Yurareechen and Dlaupac, Kenekuk, Smohalla
, and Wovoca (among many others) all led religious movements of return to Native traditions as a means of resisting religious oppression.