Snake Venom

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Snake Venom

 

toxic secretions of the salivary glands of some snake species. Snake venom is a watery fluid that is colorless, straw-colored, or greenish and consists of albumins, globulins, enzymes, water, and salts. It can be stored dry up to 23 years. The properties of the venom differ among various snakes; for example, viper venom contains hemorrhagin, which causes hemorrhages, and cobra venom is rich in neurotoxin, which attacks the nervous system. Therefore, the aftereffects of bites by different snakes are manifested in a number of ways. A viper bite results in pain, edema in the bite region, skin hemorrhages, and the formation of blisters (sometimes with necrotic tissue). A cobra bite causes dyspnea, tachycardia, vertigo, nausea, and sometimes vomiting; death results from paralysis of the respiratory center. Cobra, Ancistrodon halys, and rattlesnake bites have an anticoagulating effect on the blood, and viper bites have a coagulating effect. There are 14 species of venomous snakes in the USSR, including the cobra, viper, carpet viper, Ancistrodon halys, and adder (common, sand, Kaznakova, and Armenian).

Bites can be prevented by wearing high shoes and proceeding cautiously during marches and when doing fieldwork. Since snake venom spreads very rapidly in the victim’s body, the application of a tight tourniquet above the site of the bite, incisions, and cauterization are not only futile but even harmful. First aid measures include complete immobilization of the limb bitten, application of splints to it, and drinking copiously (tea, coffee, and water). The most effective agent is a specific anti-snake-bite serum, which is made from snake venom. Small amounts of snake venom are used for therapeutic purposes—for example, Russell’s viper venom for tamponing bleeding gums in hemophiliacs after the extraction of teeth, cobra venom as a pain reliever, and rattlesnake and cobra venom for the treatment of epilepsy, bronchial asthma, and other diseases. Drugs that have pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory action are made from snake venom. It is used in the treatment of neuralgias, muscular pains, and chronic joint diseases. Snake venom preparations are put up in the form of ointments (viprosal, vipratox) and less commonly in solutions for subcutaneous or intramuscular injection (vipraxin, viperactin). Treatment with snake venom is contraindicated in the case of tuberculosis, febrile states, general exhaustion, circulatory disorders, and severe liver and kidney diseases.

References in periodicals archive ?
Interactions of certain active compounds with toxins and lethal enzymes found in snake venom can lead to neutralization of their toxic activities (6).
The case was diagnosed as snake bite on the basis of typical pattern of clinical symptoms, facial swelling and history of grazing in pasture with 1-2 feet high grass which led to dramatic onset of signs which drastically subsided when treated with polyvalent anti snake venom (Fig.
Marcussi, "Inhibition of proteases and phospholipases A2 from Bothrops atrox and Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venoms by ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and B-complex vitamins," Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, vol.
Laustsen, "Toxin synergism in snake venoms," Toxin Reviews, vol.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antibacterial activity of crude snake venom from snake species of the genera Bothrops, Bothropoides and Rhinocerophis of the family Viperidae on S.
In the present study, we describe the isolation and functional characterization of BmooPAi, a toxin comprised of the dis-cys domain, originating from autolysis/proteolysis of PIII SVMPs from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, which showed an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation.
Interaction between snake venoms and essential oils (SDS-PAGE): We have noted absence of visible change in the electrophoretic pattern of C.
Some snake venoms have also been shown to enhance Na+/K+- ATPase expression and activity in this early phase of renal damage (Linardi et al.
The enzymatic degradation of phospholipids in the target bacterial membrane may be one of the important factor in the bactericidal property of snake venoms. A possible synergistic action between antimicrobial peptide and the venom enzymes.
Abstract Present study was performed to inhibit alkaline phosphatases (ALPases) present in snake venom Naja naja karachiensis by 28 medicinal plants of Pakistan.