a track machine used to remove snow from railroad tracks. A railroad snowplow consists of a specially designed car on which snow-removal devices, motors, control mechanisms, lights, and other equipment are mounted. The snow-removal devices may be in the form of a plow blade with side wings (twin-track snowplow), a wedge-shaped blade with side wings (single-track snowplow), one or two feed rotors and one ejection rotor (rotary snowplow), a feed-and-ejection rotor (worm-and-rotor snowplow), or a large dihedral plow incorporating an inclined surface and an undercutting blade (a ram snowplow). An alternate design uses a nozzle and turbojet engine whose service life has expired.
A snowplow car is moved on the tracks by a pusher locomotive. Operating speeds range from 40 to 70 km/hr, the width of the cleared strip is up to 5.1 m, and the height of the removed snow layer is up to 1.5 m. Single-track snowplows throw the snow away from the track to both sides. In twin-track snow-plows, the blade and the wings form a grading surface at an angle of 45°–50° (in horizontal view) to the axis of the track; the snow is removed to the outer side of the track. The snow-removal device is mounted on one end of the car.
Rotary or worm-and-rotor snowplows are mounted at the head of the train and are used to remove snowdrifts from the tracks; one to three locomotives push from the rear. Operating speeds range from 0.5 to 10 km/hr, the width of the cleared path is 5-6 m, the height of the removed layer of snow is 3-4.5 m, and the snow is thrown a distance up to 50 m. The snow-removal device is mounted at the front of the car. The most widely used three-rotor design uses two feed rotors and one ejection rotor.
A ram snowplow is pushed by one or several locomotives. Operating speeds range to 45 km/hr, the width of the cleared path is up to 3.4 m, and the height is up to 3 m. The snow-removal device is mounted at the front part of the car and consists of a large dihedral plow that pushes the snow to both sides.
Snowplows with jet engines are used to remove snow from railroad stations, switches, station bottlenecks, and ditches. A handcar or platform serves as a base on which a jet engine with a nozzle, a fuel tank, and a control system are mounted on top of a turntable. The nozzle is aimed at the track at an acute angle behind the engine, and the exhaust gases blow away, melt, and evaporate the snow. Operating speeds range from 10 to 15 km/ hr. Grading machines and motorized handcars equipped with brushing drums are also used to remove snow from railroad tracks.
Snow is removed from trolly-car tracks by specially designed cars equipped with rotary brushes that sweep the snow and throw it to one side. Automotive snowplows are used for snow removal from highways, squares, and sidewalks.
S. A. SOLOMONOV [23–1881–]