soap

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soap,

a cleansing agent. It cleanses by lowering the surface tension of water, by emulsifying grease, and by absorbing dirt into the foam.

Ancient peoples are believed to have employed wood ashes and water for washing and to have relieved the resulting irritation with grease or oil. In the 1st cent. A.D., Pliny described a soap of tallow and wood ashes used by Germanic tribes to brighten their hair. A soap factory and bars of scented soap were excavated at Pompeii. Soap fell into disuse after the fall of Rome but was revived in Italy probably in the 8th cent. and reached France c.1200; Marseilles became noted as a soapmaking center. Although soap was known in England in the 14th cent., the first English patent to a soapmaker was issued in the 17th cent. The industry was handicapped in England from 1712 to 1853 by a heavy tax on soap. In the American colonies soap factories appeared at an early date, and many housewives made soap from waste fats and lye (obtained by leaching wood ashes).

The manufacture of soap was stimulated by Chevreul's discovery of oleic and stearic acids in the early 19th cent. and by Leblanc's method (1791) of preparing soda from salt. Chemically, soaps are metallic salts of fatty acidsfatty acid,
any of the organic carboxylic acids present in fats and oils as esters of glycerol. Molecular weights of fatty acids vary over a wide range. The carbon skeleton of any fatty acid is unbranched. Some fatty acids are saturated, i.e.
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. The manufacture of soap is based on a chemical reaction (saponification) in which an alkali acts upon a fat to form a metal salt (soap) and an alcohol (glycerol). A number of methods may be employed to make soap, but all are based on the same principle of operation. Fats and oils (often blended) are heated in a large vessel, then enough alkali to react with all the fat is stirred in. Salt is added, and the soap then forms a light curd that floats to the surface. Glycerol, a valuable byproduct, can be distilled from the liquid residue.

To produce a purer soap, the curds are washed with salt solution, water is later added, and the solution is allowed to settle; the upper of the two layers thus formed is the pure soap, called settled soap. It is thoroughly churned, poured into huge frames, cut with wires, shaped, and stamped. Hard-milled soap is run over chilled rollers and is scraped off as chips which are rolled into ribbons, cut, and shaped. Soap is marketed also as chips, flakes, and beads and in powdered form. Soap powders, as distinguished from powdered soap, contain builders that assist in rough cleaning. Soaps differ according to the lathering properties of the fat or oils and according to the alkali employed. When sodium hydroxide is used as the alkali, hard soaps are formed; potassium hydroxide yields soft soaps.

Aluminum, calcium, magnesium, lead, or other metals are used in place of sodium or potassium for soaps used in industry as paint driers, ointments, and lubricating greases and in waterproofing. Fillers are added to many soaps to increase lathering, cleansing, and water-softening properties; the sodium salt of rosin is commonly used in yellow laundry soap to increase lathering. Soap substitutes include saponin-containing plants such as soapwort and shagbark and the modern soapless detergents (usually sulfonated alcohols), which may be used in hard water and even in saltwater without forming curds.

What does it mean when you dream about soap?

A dream about soap is typically a dream about something that needs to be “cleaned up” in some fashion. Perhaps we need to “clean up our act,” or just “come clean” about something.

soap

[sōp]
(materials)
A particular type of detergent, in which the water-solubilizing group is a carboxylate, COO‒, and the positive ion is usually sodium, Na+, or potassium, K+.
A soap compound mixed with a fragrance and other ingredients and then cast into soap bars of different shapes.

soap

A brick or tile of normal face dimensions, having a nominal 2-in. (5-cm) thickness.

soap

1. a cleaning or emulsifying agent made by reacting animal or vegetable fats or oils with potassium or sodium hydroxide. Soaps often contain colouring matter and perfume and act by emulsifying grease and lowering the surface tension of water, so that it more readily penetrates open materials such as textiles
2. any metallic salt of a fatty acid, such as palmitic or stearic acid

SOAP

(protocol)

SOAP

(language)

SOAP

(Simple Object Access Protocol) A message-based protocol based on XML for accessing services on the Web. Initiated by Microsoft, IBM and others, it employs XML syntax to send text commands across the Internet using HTTP. SOAP is similar in purpose to the DCOM and CORBA distributed object systems, but is lighter weight and less programming intensive. Because of its simple exchange mechanism, SOAP can also be used to implement a messaging system. SOAP is supported in COM, DCOM, Internet Explorer and Microsoft's Java implementation. See UDDI, .NET Framework and REST.

Soap

(dreams)
Some dream symbols are more difficult to interpret than others. Using soap in a dream seems to have obvious connotations, a need for cleansing and purification. Consider all of the details of your dream and think about what needs to be cleaned or refreshed. Washing with soap in your dream could refer to the cleaning up of your physical environment, your thoughts and feelings, or the resolution of a particular situation in life.
References in periodicals archive ?
Caption: This is the second in a six-part series on soap making by Marissa Ames.
Bramble Berry sells hundreds of products for soap making--everything from complete soap making kits to ingredients like essential oils, dyes and exfoliants, as well as ingredients for making lotion, nail polish and other beauty products.
"We have made only this one piece in order to showcase our capabilities for inventions in soap making and just to express our respects for royalty.
The author is a successful self-taught modern homesteader, writer, and self-sufficiency expert who presents extensively on topics including soap making, bread baking, cheese making, composting and homeschooling.
A love of things authentic and old fashioned inspires Cindy Cheever's relationship with soap making. She learned the craft at Old Sturbridge Village, though she uses commercial lye - and only a minimal amount - instead of wood ash, as soap makers did hundreds of years ago.
"As palm oil is one of the main soap making oils, it took us about a year of research and development to develop our own exclusive recipes and they have all been thoroughly tested by our family and friends," said Lynne.
When Deborah's goats provided more milk than her family could use, she began experimenting with her soap making. From her first batch of goat milk soap, she noticed how different it felt on her skin.
She and her sister are both sensitive to perfumes, so Beth decided to try her hand at soap making. She uses only pure essential oils for their healing qualities and therapeutic fragrances.
She will be an asset for CHA," said Anne-Marie Faiola, CEO of Bramble Berry, a national soap making supply company located in Bellingham.
After two years of formulating, manufacturing and selling hand crafted soaps in their spare time, the couple launched their soap making business in June 2004.
In the 1620s, Charles I famously sold the rights for soap making in London to Mr Yardley.