Social Darwinism

Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.
Related to Social Darwinism: Herbert Spencer, Social Gospel

Social Darwinism

a term for social theories that apply Darwinian principles of NATURAL SELECTION to societies (see also DARWIN). The best-known proponents of this position were SPENCER (1820-1903) in the UK, and W. G. Sumner (1840-1910) in the US, both of whom argued forcefully that society should be viewed as if it were an adaptive organism (see SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST). It is important to distinguish this from more generally evolutionist social perspectives which may not share the hard FUNCTIONALISM inherent in this approach, but simply a belief in some kind of directed social transformation (see EVOLUTIONARY SOCIOLOGY, SOCIOCULTURAL EVOLUTIONISM). The term is now almost always used pejoratively by social theorists who object to the importation of the biological analogy into the study of human social life. It is also regarded as politically problematic, since, if individuals and societies are subject to the survival of the fittest, then the status quo is always seen as justifiable. Social Darwinist ideas are now sometimes presented as SOCIOBIOLOGY.

Social Darwinism


an ideological current in bourgeois social thought in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, characterized by reduction of the laws of development of human society to the laws of biological evolution and by the assertion that natural selection, struggle for life, and survival of the fittest are the decisive factors in the life of society.

Social Darwinism traces its earliest origins back to T. Malthus and its immediate origins to H. Spencer. It is marked by extreme diversity. Its adherents include those who advocate social inequality, such as the American sociologist W. Sumner, and those who oppose social inequality, such as the Italian sociologists M. Vaccaro and E. Ferri. They include bourgeois reformers, such as the American sociologist A. Small, and conservative proponents of the need for spontaneous social development, such as Spencer and Sumner. Some of the most reactionary varieties of Social Darwinism are closely associated with racism, as is the case, for example, with L. Woltmann of Germany and G. Vacher de Lapouge of France. Others are linked with the psychological school in sociology, for example, Small, the English sociologist W. Bagehot, and the Austrian sociologist G. Ratzenhofer.

Social Darwinism biologized the social processes in various ways. The German sociologists W. Schallmayer and G. Mazat drew their conceptions directly from the principles of biological evolution. Other Social Darwinists, such as Vaccaro, attempted to demonstrate the differences between the struggle for existence among animals, on the one hand, and the struggle for existence among men, on the other. Finally, still others, such as the Austrian sociologist and legal scholar L. Gumplowicz, reduced social processes to biological processes by emphasizing the primacy of the social conflicts that arise as humans satisfy their needs and strive for dominance.

Social Darwinism provided a certain substantiation to the link between biological and social processes and, in contrast to theories that viewed society as a harmonious whole, emphasized the conflictual and contradictory character of social development. Some Social Darwinists investigated certain aspects of life in primitive societies and the role of social norms and customs in the regulation of human behavior. However, the fundamental principles of Social Darwinism are untenable. Social Darwinism’s main theoretical failings are its naturalistic explanation of social phenomena, its denial of specificity to social phenomena, and, thus, its reductionism, that is, its reduction of social laws to biological laws. The Social Darwinists’ vulgar interpretation of evolutionary theory leads them to a simplistic and distorted approach to social conflict, which they regard as “natural,” eternal, and unavoidable, and whose role they examine apart from its connection with antagonistic social relations. The most reactionary variants of Social Darwinism have been used as ideological justification for the class rule of the bourgeoisie and for militarism and expansionism in foreign policy.


Engels, F. Anti-Dühring. In K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 20.
Darvinizm imarksizm. Kharkov, 1923.
Kon, I. S. Pozitivizm v sotsiologii. Leningrad, 1964.
Hofstadter, R. Social Darwinism in American Thought, rev. ed. New York, 1959.
Rogers, J. “Darwinism and Social Darwinism.” Journal of the His-tory of Ideas, 1972, vol. 33, no. 2.


References in periodicals archive ?
By the turn of the century, Social Darwinism was in full retreat.
Social Darwinism certainly was a major concern of William Jennings Bryan, prosecutor in the Scopes trial.
Her deep faith in the contribution of each race to South Africa was mingled with a social Darwinism that mars many of her best essays; pleas for racial equality are mixed with assumptions about racial instincts.
Lester Frank Ward forged the invention of sociology and challenged social Darwinism in the process.
Here is the irony: the conservative movement's social Darwinism and anti-modernist discourse about less government, personal autonomy, and moral responsibility mask an intrusive social agenda which will be initiated under the rubrics of God, republican virtue, and states' rights and facilitated by federal legislation in support of a very narrow social, cultural, political, and economic elite.
In "The Class of 1984," four revolting yuppies croon, "We're entry-level assholes on the rise" and come out for social Darwinism.
The book focuses on less-known connections, and omits the American matrix for Darwin's work in popular literature and culture: physiognomy, Social Darwinism and progressivism, and the debates on race, species, and abolitionism are not discussed here.
Porter, Bothne and Jason (no affiliations listed) discuss the foundations of community psychology through a series of short chapters that use social Darwinism, genetics, fetal development, brain plasticity, the educational system and international human rights through the filter of the "Self from Nativism" concept.
In nineteenth-century Europe and America, religion and philosophy were joined by science and medicine to support Manifest Destiny, scientific racism, and social Darwinism, all of which had profound consequences on Native Americans and the Spirit of the West.
Hale argues that the tendency to see Darwin's influence exclusively in the context of social Darwinism and the unfettered capitalism endorsed by stereotypical Victorian industrialists of the Gradgrind school has caused us to miss its impact on the "new liberal" rejection of laissez-faire ideals and the further development of socialism in the final decades of the nineteenth century.
As in any other society, foreign ideas were interpreted and modified in accordance with the interests and circumstances of each group, and in this process different strands of Positivism, Darwinism, and social Darwinism were put together to create a sort of kaleidoscope which, mixed with liberal and local religious ideas, has been named Mexican Positivism.
Later, under the influence of a version of science, the right seized upon social Darwinism and eugenics to devalue the liberty and dignity of ordinary people, and to elevate the nation's mission above the mere individual person, recommending colonialism and compulsory sterilization and the cleansing power of war.