social differentiation

social differentiation

the process whereby an institutional activity becomes divided and more specialized in two or more separate institutional activities. Differentiation is a term derived from biology to describe the specialization of functions in society in a process of social evolution. For example, the separation and specialization of the economic function of production from the institution of the family which retains the functions of reproduction and infant socialization. In PARSONS’ (1977) model of the social system this process is described in more abstract terms such as the differentiation of the polity from the societal community. Social differentiation is also referred to as structural differentiation in functionalist theories of SOCIAL. CHANGE (see FUNCTIONALISM).

Nineteenth-century evolutionary theories of social change (e.g. SPENCER) saw differentiation as a fundamental principle of social development in biology and sociology whereby societies increase in size and complexity in adapting to the environment (see EVOLUTIONARY THEORY). Differentiation was accompanied by the functional need for increased integration and interdependence in more complex societies. In the writings of DURKHEIM, social differentiation is identical to the social DIVISION OF LABOUR. Contemporary theories of social evolution retain the concept of differentiation as central to the general development of adaptive capacity in industrial societies (Sahlins and Service, 1960) and, in the case of Parsons’ later work, to analyse the interdependence between the functional subsystems of modern society. See also MODERNIZATION.

Differentiation, Social


the division of a social unit or its parts into interrelated elements. Social differentiation refers to the process of differentiation as well as to the results of this process.

Non-Marxist sociology has studied primarily the formal aspects of social differentiation. The English philosopher H. Spencer was the first to advance a theory of differentiation at the end of the 19th century, borrowing the term “differentiation” from biology and proclaiming it a universal law of the evolution of matter from the simple to the complex. According to Spencer, in human society the division of labor is a manifestation of the universal differentiation process. The French sociologist E. Durkheim considered differentiation resulting from the division of labor to be a law of nature and related the differentiation of social functions to the increasing density of population and the intensification of interpersonal and intergroup contacts. The German philosopher and sociologist M. Weber saw differentiation as a result of the process of the rationalization of values, norms, and relationships between people.

The contemporary structural-functional school of non-Marxist sociology (for example, the American sociologist T. Parsons) views differentiation as both an actual characteristic of social structure and a process leading to the emergence of various forms of activity, roles, and groups that specialize in fulfilling certain functions indispensable for the preservation of the social system. Structural functionalism, however, leaves unsolved various problems concerning the causes and types of differentiation. In addition to functional there are taxonomic definitions of differentiation, which simply point out differences in roles, status, groups, and organization. V. I. Lenin criticized the abstract treatment of the differentiation process in bourgeois sociology, which does not consider the basic fact of the division of society into antagonistic classes (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 33, p. 10).

The founders of Marxism-Leninism analyzed the process of differentiation in society, relating it to the development of productive forces, the division of labor, and the growing complexity of social structure. The most important stages of social differentiation are the division of agricultural labor and animal husbandry, of handicrafts and agriculture, and of production and the family, as well as the emergence of the state. Marxism demands the study of the concrete process of differentiation in society as a whole—the emergence and formation of classes, social strata, and groups and the separation of certain social spheres (for example, production, science)—as well as differentiation within these classes and social spheres. Such concrete analysis shows, for example, that differentiation under capitalism is related to the growth of social inequality, whereas under socialism, society moves toward homogeneity and the overcoming of class distinctions.


References in periodicals archive ?
The book is a compilation of papers from a workshop and a presentation to launch the research program Articulation of Modernity' which aims to analyse the 'interplay between the production of popular music, shifting ideas of the modern, and processes of social differentiation in twentieth-century Southeast Asia' (P.
The study examines social differentiation and hierarchies among these hikers and highlights what the hiking subculture can tell us about American society.
Recognizing the intersectional nature of health outcomes, including social differentiation beyond gender and sex, many health researchers are advocating for greater evidence-informed decision-making in addressing persistent health inequities.
18 -- The year that just ended was marked by unprecedented changes characterized by a multitude of unforeseeable events : terror attack in Paris, millions of people fleeing Syria due to civil war, Boko Haram raids and kidnapping of girls for sexual slavery, climate change leading to floods in several parts of the world, growing criminality with no guarantees of safety for girls and women, intense social differentiation, unemployment, food insecurity among the poor and reforms carried out with no understanding of the close correlation between economics and social transformations.
Estimates of job creation have been overstated, while social differentiation means that those who suffer most from the loss of land and livelihoods are usually not the same people who are most likely to benefit from any new jobs.
More importantly, these mimetic relationships, involving members of excluded and exclusive communities, demonstrate how far social differentiation has broken down in Mississippi society under Prohibition.
The German theorist Niklas Luhmann believed that what distinguishes modern society from all past societies is its primary basis of social differentiation.
The type of governance that invests in all members of the nation, regardless of any social differentiation, failed to manifest during this period.
He covers the law books of Germanic peoples as a source for research into the human body; the concept of the human body in the Germanic legal codes and in early medieval narratives; the human body as an object of crime, body parts, their damage and violation, and the compensatory tariff system; and the perception of the human body and social differentiation among Germanic peoples.
The results of their analysis counter longstanding claims that the Indus civilization developed as a peaceful, cooperative, and egalitarian state-level society, without social differentiation, hierarchy, or differences in access to basic resources.
And this social differentiation and awareness was the main dynamic that created the AK Party.

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