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see SuhartoSuharto
or Soeharto
, 1921–2008, president of Indonesia (1967–98). A veteran of the war for independence (1945–49) against the Dutch, he became army chief of staff in 1965.
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In the context of a drastic shrinkage of the economy, Soeharto was forced to step down by a combination of societal mobilization and fracturing of the ruling political elite.
Most notable of these was the country's oil industry, which the technology-mad Soeharto government spent 10 years carefully neglecting.
And judging from the relative complacency of the Indonesian electorate, the middle class is willing to forgo political representation in exchange for wealth and stability, at least for the duration of Soeharto's reign.
During the Soeharto regime--as Oey Tjin Eng, the former administrator of the Boen Tek Bio temple in Tangerang, quips--the Chinese-Indonesians were only allowed to have three Chinese zodiacs (shio), namely goat (kambing), rabbit kelinci), and cow (sapi).
In 1990 the idea was presented before President Soeharto and approved.
That year, in his view, is when Sino-Indonesians, anticipating the end of the Soeharto period, once again took up their pens.
Moreover, a large proportion of respondents in all four countries expressed satisfaction with authoritarian or dictatorial leaders, including Soeharto in Indonesia and Ferdinand Marcos in the Philippines.
He situates these events within the coercive effects of statebuilding under Soeharto's New Order and compares them to patterns of violence in other areas of Indonesia.
After an initial chapter reviewing early history to the coming of Islam in 1600 CE, he considers the colonial era to 1940, the struggle for independence, the Sukarno era 1945-68, the Soeharto era 1966-98, and Indonesia after Soeharto.
By December, 2003 the company, which is owned by a son of former President Soeharto, Bambang Trihatmodjo, reported assets valued at Rp 5.93 trillion up from Rp 4 trillion a year before.
Their growth reflects the more open political system since Soeharto stepped aside in May 1998, and the rapid politicisation of the population throughout the last two years around the issues of human rights, referendum and independence.
Sidney Jones had found on a recent return visit that the human rights situation in Indonesia has changed greatly since the resignation of President Soeharto. The press is now free to publish more or less what it likes, most political prisoners have been released and 72 political parties have been registered.