Soil Liming

Soil Liming

 

the application of lime and other calcium fertilizers to the soil to eliminate excess acidity, harmful for many agricultural crops; a means of chemically improving acid soils. Soil liming is based on replacing ions of hydrogen and aluminum with ions of calcium and magnesium in the absorption complex of the soil. As a result of the neutralization of soil acidity and the increase in calcium content during liming, the vitality of useful microorganisms (for example, nodule bacteria and microorganisms that mineralize organic remains and humus) is stengthened, the soil is enriched with nutrient elements accessible to plants, and the physical properties of the soil are improved (structure, water permeability). Soil liming increases the effectiveness of organic and mineral fertilizers.

Soil liming is used extensively on podzolic, soddy-podzolic, and certain peat soils and less often on gray forest soils and red soils. Podzolic soils with a pH in salt extract of less than 4.5 require liming for all crops, and those with a pH of 4.5–5.0 must be limed for all crops except lupine. Where the pH is 5.1–5.5 lime must be applied for all crops that are highly sensitive to acidity (beets, cabbage, onions, garlic, clover, alfalfa, and currants), for crops requiring a weakly acid and close to neutral reaction (rutabagas, turnips, vetch, beans, corn, wheat, barley, cucumbers, apples, and cherries), and for crops able to withstand moderate acidity but producing higher yields where large doses of lime are applied (oats, rye, timothy, and buckwheat). In podzolic soils with a pH of 5.6–6.0, liming is required only for beets and alfalfa, and where the pH is more than 6.0 the soil need not be limed. The dosage of lime fertilizers depends on the degree of soil acidity and on its texture and should be sufficient to support a weakly acid soil reaction for 10–12 years, which will ensure normal conditions for the growth and development of most agricultural crops (see Table 1).

Table 1. Full (normal) doses of lime (according to N.I. Aliamovskii; in tons per hectare)
 pH (in salt extract for soil)
Soil textureto 4.54.64.85.05.25.4-5.5
Sandy loam and light loamy....4.03.53.02.52.02.0
Medium and heavy loamy6.05.55.04.54.03.5

The dosage of lime fertilizers can be reduced when they are not placed deep in the soil and are used together with organic and mineral fertilizers. Lime fertilizers are usually applied once per crop rotation. In some cases, for example, if the crops in the rotation differ greatly in their need for liming, it is advisable to apply the full dose in parts (in stages). Lime fertilizers can be spread over fields in the spring, summer, and fall; on level areas lime can be applied on frozen soil and light snow. The effectiveness of soil liming depends to a large extent on the evenness of the fertilizer’s distribution over the surface and on its thorough working into the soil. Liming produces a significant gain in yield. Average gains for the USSR (in centners per hectare) are as follows: ear grain crops (grain) 0.5–4, legumes (grain) 1–3, feed beets 30–60, potatoes 5–15, flax (straw) 1-3, clover (hay) 7–15, cabbage 30–70, and carrots 15–45. In order to lime soils on a planned basis special soil studies and field tests are made, and cartograms of soil acidity and liming are compiled.

REFERENCES

Kornilov, M. F., and N.L. Blagovidov. Izvestokovanie pochv severo-zapadnoi zony nechernozemnoy polosy SSSR. Moscow-Leningrad, 1955.
Avdonin, N.S. Povyshenie plodorodiia kislykh pochv. Moscow, 1960.
Kornilov, M. F., and Z.V. Trunina. Izvestkovanie kislykh pochv. Leningrad, 1960.
Shederov, S.G. Izvestkovanie kislykh pochv, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1960.

M. F. KORNILOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Soil liming in forests, supply, application of earth-moist dolomitic dusts and dolomite-wood ash mixtures by means of helicopters and / or blowers
As observed for plant height (Figure 1A), the lowest values of stem diameter (Figure 1B) were obtained in plants under the treatments T1 (Cerrado soil) and T2 (soil + liming), which suggests that the highest values of plant height and stem diameter occurred in the treatments T3 (soil + fertilizer) and T4 (soil + fertilizer + liming) were caused by the NPK fertilization, with no effect of soil liming on these variables.
The interaction terms of aluminium rate by genotype was significant for crude fat and total ash contents of the common bean genotypes under both soil liming regimes, and for crude fibre under the lime-untreated soil.
Manganese toxicity can limit commercial plant production and necessitate soil liming and drainage and the use of Mn-tolerant plant species and varieties (Zhang et al.
These materials can be used both as a soil liming agent and as a source of nutrients.
This result explains part of the beneficial effect of acid soil liming on crop production and of adding ammonium fertilizers to soils with pH greater than 7.
The key element is acidification," he said, a conclusion supported indirectly by Forest Service experimental soil liming in locations adjacent to the Allegheny.
Prior information notice without call for competition:Forest soil liming with aircraft in the area of responsibility of the Lower Saxony Chamber of Agriculture, Forestry Office Uelzen and the General Hannoversche Klosterfond in summer / autumn 2018
Nowadays, this technology has been widely used in soil liming, because it enables lime application at the varied rate, which can reduce costs and environmental impacts caused by agricultural activity.
Whittaker CW, Armiger WH, Chichilo PP, Hoffman WM (1955) Brown Mud" from the aluminum industry as a soil liming material.