Soil Stabilization

Soil Stabilization


artificially changing soil properties for construction purposes (by physical or chemical methods) at the natural site.

As a result of soil stabilization, the bearing capacity of the foundation of the structure is increased and its strength, watertightness, resistance to washout, and other properties are improved. Soil stabilization is widely used in the construction on sagging soils of industrial and civil buildings; for strengthening the banks adjoining highways in a hollow or the walls of a ditch, where the ground is saturated with water; for preventing landslides; in sinking shafts and in creating filtration-proof barriers in the foundations of hydraulic structures; for protecting concrete structures (foundations) from aggressive industrial effluents; and for improving the bearing capacity of piles and of large-diameter supports. Soil stabilization is achieved by injecting cementing materials or chemical solutions into the ground and also by applying electric currents to the ground or heating or cooling it. The basic methods of soil stabilization are cementation, argillization, bituminization, silicification, • resinification, methods using electrochemical or thermal action, and artificial freezing.

Cementation consists in injecting a cement suspension into the soil to be stabilized (such as fissured, rocky soil or soil containing sand and gravel) through a system of boreholes drilled in the soil. The suspension has a mass ratio of cement to water in the range of 0.1 to 2. To increase the mobility of dense cement solutions and cement-sand solutions a sulfitealcohol vinasse can be added, in the amount of 0.01–0.25 percent of the quantity of cement. Additions of calcium chloride, in the amount of 1–5 percent of the quantity of cement, can be used to regulate the acceleration of setting of the solution and increasing the initial strength of cement stones. The stability of the soil and its watertightness increase significantly after cementation.

Hot bituminization, as well as cementation, is used in cavernous rocky strata where subsurface flow attains a high speed. The purpose of hot bituminization is to seal those larger cavities that can not be sealed off by cementation because of the high speed of subsurface flow. Hot bitumen is injected into the cavities and fissures of cavernous rock through boreholes equipped with injectors. In cold bituminization a finely dispersed bitumen emulsion is injected into the ground. This method is used for very narrow fissures in rocky soil and for stabilization of sandy soils.

Argillization is used to reduce filtration capacity of fissured, rocky cavernous strata and of gravelly soils. In this method a clay suspension, with a small amount of a coagulant added, is inserted under high pressure into the fissures of the stratum.

The silicification method is based on the use of silicate solutions. To stabilize medium-grained sands the so-called two-solutions method is used. It consists of successively injecting into the ground solutions of sodium silicate and of calcium chloride. As a result of the reaction, silica gel is obtained. This gel imparts to the soil considerable strength and watertightness. Fine-grained sands are stabilized using the one-solution method of silicification, that is, using a solution of sodium silicate with phosphoric acid added (Figure 1). In loess soils only a solution of sodium silicate is injected into the ground. The role of the second solution is played by the salts of the soil itself.

Figure 1. Diagram of equipment used in silicification of soils: (1) tank containing binder, (2) tank containing acid, (3) pump “ND,” (4) mixer, (5) control console with recording instruments, (6) injector, (7) pneumatic drill used to sink injectors into the soil, (8) stabilization contour

Resinification consists in injecting into the ground an aqueous solution of carbamide resin, with additions of hydrochloric acid, oxalic acid, or ammonium chloride. This method is used to stabilize and to improve the strength and watertightness of fine-grained sandy soils.

In argillaceous soils, where injection of solutions into the soil is not feasible, an electrochemical stabilization method is used. This method is based on passing a direct electric current through the soil, into which a solution of calcium chloride has been introduced. As a result, the soil is dehydrated and packed. Exchange reactions occurring in the regions adjacent to electrodes are also conducive to the packing and stabilization of the soil. Electrochemical stabilization can be subdivided into electrodrying, electropacking and electrostabilization.

Thermal stabilization is used to strengthen sagging loess soils. In this method the soil to be stabilized is sintered by gaseous products of fuel combustion, having a temperature of 700° to 1000°C. Combustion is most effective if conducted within the stratum of the soil to be stabilized (Figure 2). Stabilization of unstable water-bearing soils can be achieved by artificially freezing the soil.

In the USSR all-Union symposia on stabilization and packing

Figure 2. Diagram of equipment used in thermal stabilization of sagging loess soils by combustion of fuel directly within a borehole: (1) sagging soil, (2) nonsagging soil, (3) compressor, (4) pipeline for cold air, (5) container for liquid fuel, (6) pump feeding fuel into the borehole, (7) fuel feed pipeline, (8) filter, (9) nozzle, (10) gate and combustion chamber, (11) borehole, (12) region of thermal soil stabilization

of soils are conducted periodically. Records of such symposia are published in special collections.


Adamovich, A. N., and D. V. Koltunov. Tsementatsiia osnovanii gidrosooruzhenii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1953.
Rzhanitsyn, B. A. Silikatizatsiia peschanykh gruntov. Moscow, 1949.
Litvinov, I. M. Termicheskoe ukreplenie prosadochnykh lessovykh i drugikh gruntov v osnovanii razlichnykh idanii i sooruzhenii. Kiev, 1955.


soil stabilization

The application of a chemical or mechanical treatment of a mass of soil to increase or maintain its stability or improve its engineering properties.
References in periodicals archive ?
Using the cement-maker's soil stabilization technology, Rapid Road Stabilizers Inc.
Fact.MR has announced the addition of the "Soil Stabilization Materials Market Forecast, Trend Analysis & Competition Tracking - Global Market insights 2018 to 2028"report to their offering.
Main features: the work includes: a firm slice and an optional slice.Close step: supply and installation of 30 cavurnstranche option 1: landscaping, soil stabilization
LSC, a soil stabilization products platform, reportedly underwent significant corporate management changes, executed a transformational acquisition as well as developed and introduced multiple new products to market.
Summary: The soil stabilization materials market is estimated to witness favorable growth outlook with thriving opportunities in agricultural and construction verticals.
Crews have completed the installation of temporary pavement markings and the contractor will continue excavating/shaping ditches, soil stabilization and miscellaneous cleanup work throughout the job site, according to the Lake County Division of Transportation.
Among these materials are Solido, a cement specialized on the speed of building roads, Soil Stabilization, which allows contractors to continue building roads even during rains; SFCrete or the Super Fast Crete, which can be used for quick repairs especially in urban roads; and Dura+ which is specialized for long lifespan of infrastructure facilities.
"On 3 May 2018, soil stabilization works under the reactor building of power unit No 2 commenced at Bushehr-2 NPP construction site," Russian state nuclear agency Rosatom announced on its website on Thursday.
Juno can be used to partially substitute traditional binders in conventional concrete slabs, soil stabilization, mass pours, above-grade walls, grout, shotcrete and controlled density fill.
This solution is efficient in erosion control and water conservation, soil stabilization, pollution control, wastewater treatment, and storm damage mitigation and prevention.
[9] investigated the potential of a natural polymer, molasses in road construction, and soil stabilization, respectively.
Horizon North provides full service solutions in camp management accommodations and catering, matting and soil stabilization, remote power and energy generation systems, and relocatable and permanent modular structures.