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a sociopolitical doctrine that became widespread in the bourgeois social sciences with the transition of the capitalist society to the stage of imperialism. In contrast to the Marxist thesis that the class struggle is the motive force of social development, the founders of solidarism, including the French political figure L. Bourgeois, author of Solidarity (1902), held that life in any society, especially bourgeois society, depends above all on the solidarity of its members.

While solidarism was directed against Marxism, it was also a reaction against the extreme individualism of bourgeois ideology in the period of industrial capitalism. Solidarism was the basis of several early 20th-century bourgeois teachings of sociology, for example, those of E. Durkheim, as well as theories of state and law, for example, those of L. Duguit. It was used by bourgeois reformists to justify “class cooperation and conciliation.” Solidarism is also closely linked with the doctrine that “property imposes obligations,” which claims that private capitalist ownership renders a valuable service to society. Reactionary ideologists have used solidarism to justify the theory and nature of corporatism. Because it was employed for demagogic ends by fascist leaders, solidarism acquired derogatory connotations after the fall of the fascist regimes. In the 1960’s and 1970’s, however, solidarism has been used to justify such bourgeois concepts as “social partnership” and the “free association of labor and capital.” Solidarism is an important element of the political doctrine of clericalism.

References in periodicals archive ?
On pluralism and solidarism, see Andrew Hurrell, On Global Order: Power, Values, and the Constitution of International Society (2007).
Hedley Bull's Pluralism of the Intellect and Solidarism of the Will.
(5) Insofar as solidarism was regarded as a viable political-economic alternative among Europeans of their day, the claim that Leo and Pius did intend to direct Catholics toward social reconstruction along specifically corporatist lines gains force.
Bunlarin basinda birinci ve ikinci derece toplumlar (first and second order societies), dayanismacilik ve cogulculuk (solidarism and pluralism), birincil ve ikincil kurumlar (primary and secondary institutions) gelmektedir.
As "a practitioner of nation building," Ataturk envisioned a society based on "solidarism"--that is, "the building of an integrated, conflict-free society." (2) In this context, former subjects of the Ottoman Empire became citizens of the Turkish republic, and religion--having no state involvement or affiliation--was rendered a strictly personal matter of individuals.
(62) Sobre la nocion de solidarism vease Bull, The Anarchical Society.
Quayle highlights four areas--liberalization, regional identity, economics and functional cooperation--around which the ES notion of solidarism might coalesce.
In the 1990s global order was widely understood through the lens of liberal internationalism or liberal solidarism. Globalization was rendering obsolete the old Westphalian world of great power rivalries, balance of power politics, and an old-fashioned international law built around state sovereignty and strict rules of nonintervention.
This criterion could be discussed as an attempt of Solidarism to respond to objections arguing that forcible humanitarian intervention is based on a violation of the principle of non-use of force and that jeopardizing this tenet of international law, in cases where the probability of success is not secured, grossly undermines an international order (based on the absence of interstate war and on compliance to the rule of non-use of force).
"This solidarism came together during the Miners' Strike of 1984-85, which was an unforgettable experience for me and for the many thousands who were directly involved in it."
As he built up the college's staff, Carr looked to Europe where these ideas were being worked out most fully in a range of movements, including distributism, solidarism, and personalism.
(9) Following this is a discussion of hybridity, subsidiarity, solidarism and multi-level governance--concepts that are regarded as subsets of cosmopolitanism in this particular paper, with no intention to oversimplify their complex meanings.

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