solidarity


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Solidarity,

Polish independent trade union federation formed in Sept., 1980. Led by Lech WałęsaWałęsa, Lech
, 1943–, Polish labor and political leader. He worked as an electrician at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk but was dismissed in 1976 for his antigovernment protests.
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, it grew rapidly in size and political power and soon posed a threat to Poland's Communist government by its sponsorship of labor strikes and other forms of public protest. Rural Solidarity, a Polish farmers' union, was recognized in May, 1981. By the middle of 1981, Solidarity had an estimated 9 million members. Although it was able to block government initiatives, it had no means of attaining governmental power. On Dec. 13, 1981, the new party leader Gen. Wojciech JaruzelskiJaruzelski, Wojciech Witold
, 1923–2014, Polish military and political leader. His family fled the 1939 German invasion to Lithuania, and were deported to Siberia after Russia invaded the Baltic States.
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, with Moscow's support, launched a crackdown by declaring martial law, suspending Solidarity, and imprisoning most of its leaders. By the end of 1982, the Solidarity movement had died down enough for Wałęsa to be released from prison and for martial law to be lifted.

During the mid-1980s, Solidarity persisted as an underground organization supported by the Catholic Church, and by the late 1980s it was again a major force in Poland. The union succeeded in frustrating Jaruzelski's attempts at reform, and nationwide strikes in 1988 led to the first governmental attempts to open a dialogue with Solidarity. On Apr. 5, 1989, Solidarity and the government signed an agreement legalizing Solidarity and allowing it to campaign for the upcoming elections. In limited free elections that followed, candidates supported by the union won a resounding victory. By the end of August a Solidarity-led coalition government was formed. In Dec., 1990, Wałęsa was elected president and resigned his union post; he failed to win reelection in 1995. Solidarity has since placed greater emphasis on traditional trade union matters, but the political bloc Solidarity Electoral Action, an outgrowth of the union founded in 1996, governed Poland from 1997 to 2001. Solidarity currently has 722,000 members.

Bibliography

See T. G Ash, The Polish Revolution: Solidarity, 1980–1982 (1984).

solidarity

see SOCIAL SOLIDARITY and MECHANICAL AND ORGANIC SOLIDARITY.

Solidarity

(Solidarnosc) Polish labor union movement of the 1980s. [Pol. Hist.: WB, P:541]
See: Labor
References in periodicals archive ?
The Kashmir Solidarity Hour was observed between 12 noon to 12:30 pm and the National anthems of Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) were played in a show of solidarity with the oppressed Kashmiris.
'Kashmir Hour' was observed between 12pm to 12:30pm and the national anthems of Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) were played in a show of solidarity with the oppressed Kashmiris.
The CPO said all police officials in remote areas of Rawalpindi district had been directed to ensure their participation and presence in the Kashmir solidarity programmes.
I want all Pakistanis to come out tomorrow 12 noon -12.30 pm to show solidarity with the Kashmiri people and send the Kashmiris in IOK a clear message that the entire Pakistani nation stands in solidarity with them and against Indian fascist oppression, the inhumane 24-day curfew,
Elmoussali also stressed the need to unify visions and guidelines for the establishment of an African Agenda for the Social and Solidarity Economy, focusing on concrete proposals that could engage all actors for the promotion of the social economy.
Solidarity Bahrain chief executive Jawad Mohammed said, "We take immense pride and pleasure in introducing the first video insurance service in GCC.
The union official reported that the UGTT has since 2015 proposed a bill on the social and solidarity economy based on a participatory and democratic approach in decision-making.
A seminar regarding Kashmir solidarity day was also organized at Committee Chowk Rawalpindi where participants highlighted core issue.
Special functions will also be held in all educational institutions across the province to express solidarity with the innocent Kashmiri people who are struggling for their right to self-determination.
Human chains will be formed at Kohala, Mangla, Holar and Azad Pattan points linking Pakistan and Azad Kashmir, Radio Pakistan reported.In the federal capital, segments of civil society will form a human chain at D-Chowk to express solidarity with their oppressed Kashmiri brethren.
Dubai: Hundreds of expatriates from different nationalities participated in a 'Solidarity Walk' on Friday morning, December 2, at Dubai's Al Mamzar Park's tracks as the UAE kicked off its 47th National Day celebrations.
Solidarity Group Holding, one of the largest Takaful groups in the world recently organised a training session which focused on aspects of Corporate Governance & Risk Management in the Insurance sector highlighting the latest global developments affecting the industry.

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