Solonetz


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Solonetz

 

a type of soil formed under conditions of a non-leaching water regime with the accumulation of sodium (from 10 to 70 percent of the volume of absorption) in the soil absorption complex. The sodium enters from the soil solution or groundwater. The profile of a solonetz is composed of the following soil horizons: (A) the eluvial, or humus, layer (depth from 2–3 to 15–25 cm, humus content from 1–5 to 9–10 percent), (B) the illuvial, or solonetz, layer (depth 10–20 cm), (BC) the transitional layer (the accumulation of gypsum and sodium sulfate may occur in this layer), and (C) parent material. Solonetzes are basic soils and have a high content of sodium bicarbonate, especially in soda solonetzes. The soils are characterized by high viscosity, stickiness, and swelling in a wet state and by high density and hardness in the dry state. The illuvial horizon has a basaltic, prismatic, or fault-block structure, and the colloids are mobile. Several groups of solonetzes are distinguished, including chernozem solonetzes, chestnut solonetzes, meadow-chernozem solonetzes, and subtropical solonetzes. These groups are further broken down into subgroups (solonchak, typical, solodized, and residual) and genera (soda and chloride-sulfate).

Solonetzes are found in patches in steppe, semidesert, and desert zones of Africa, Asia, South America, and Australia. In the USSR they occur in the Lower Volga region, the Northern Caucasus, and Kazakhstan. In preparation for cultivation these soils are washed, treated with gypsum, deeply plowed, and treated with organic and inorganic fertilizers; grass cultivation and artificial aggregate stabilizers are also used. Solonetzes may be planted with sugarbeets, soybeans, and grains (wheat, rye, barley, and millet).

REFERENCES

Melioratsiia solontsov v SSSR. Moscow, 1953.
Baliabo, N. K., B. S. Gutina, and E. A. Zvereva. Osvoenie i povyshenie plodorodiia solontsovykh pochv. Moscow, 1962.
References in periodicals archive ?
Respecto a los ocho tipos de suelo para esta misma area (Inegi, 2007), Chernozem, Castanozem, Regosol y Solonetz fueron escasos y no se encontro a la especie ni en los registros ni en la validacion.
In the considered soils, the molar fractions of calcium and magnesium associates are 2.0-6.1% [[Ca.sup.2+]] and 1.4-6.6% [[Mg.sup.2+]] against 13.1-19.2% and 15.7-23.5%, respectively, in solonetz (Endovitskii et al., 2009b).
Element Content in Content in Content in the parent the black the solonetz rock soil Ni 84 83 90 Co 16 20 25# * Cr 460 344 320# Mn 1,140 1,278 1,660# * V 108 213# 236# Ti 5,200 6,111# 7,000# Cu 86 89 95 * Zn 54 220# 253# Pb 10 42# 54# * Mo 3 2 2 Element Percentage Percentage abundance in abundance lithosphere in soil (according to (according to Vinogradov) Vinogradov) Ni 58 40 Co 18 8 Cr 83 200 Mn 1,000 850 V 100 100 Ti 4,500 4,600 Cu 47 20 Zn 85 50 Pb 10 10 Mo 2 2 Note: Bold text denotes significantly different data on the content of microelements in the soil relative to parent rock.
Process Regsol Brunisol Organic Solonetz Physical mixing l 1 o 1 Minerai weathering l 1 o 1 Formation secondary minerals o 1 o m Leaching o 1 o o Eluvial --illuvial o 1 o h Organic matter accumulation o m h o Process Chernozen Podzol Luvisol Physical mixing m o o Minerai weathering m m m Formation secondary minerals 1 m m Leaching 1 m m Eluvial --illuvial m h h Organic matter accumulation m m m
In the Level Areas, which cover most of the Tidal Flat, Typic Natraqualfs (Gleyic Solonetz) are the dominant soils; they are poorly drained soils with sequences: An-Btng-BCng-Cng.
En el marco de estudio quedan representados desde los extensos suelos desarrollados sobre las laderas y el glacis o zona de contacto tectonico entre el fondo de valle y los rebordes graniticos --correspondientes a los tipos regosoles, cambisoles y luvisoles-- a los mas feraces y minoritarios sobre formas fluviales --fluvisoles y solonetz gleicos--.
In the arid limits of the Mediterranean areas in Australia, red soils show transitions to alkaline soils (Solonetz).
A sodicity-induced degraded wasteland, classified as takyric solonetz with low permeability (Ks <0.1 mm [d.sub.-1]), is spread widely across the arid area of north-west China.
Con base en la clasificacion de suelos de la FAO/ UNESCO 1968 (CETENAL, 1970), se encuentran en el predio 3 unidades de suelo: litosol (en las sierras, en laderas, barrancas y lomerios, con una profundidad menor a los 10 cm), xerosol (tiene una capa superficial de tono claro y muy pobre en humus, debajo de la cual puede haber un subsuelo rico en arcillas) y solonetz (tiene un subsuelo arcilloso con terrones duros en forma de columnas).
According to the Australian Soil Classification [33] and the Victorian GMU250 geomorphology database [34], the dominant soil orders are Sodosols (or Solonetz in World Reference Base (WRB) soil classification) and Vertosols (or Vertisols in WRB soil classification), generally in the western and eastern sides of the study area, respectively.
The Artemisio pauciflorae-Camphorosmion monspeliacae Karpov 2001 comprises plant communities dominated by Artemisia pauciflora on solonetz-like and solonetz soils of the Volga and Ural River basins.
Within this unit, several soil types were identified, including: (a) contorted gilgai, (b) red-brown earths and transitional red-brown earths, (c) solodized solonetz, and (d) deep sands.