solvent extraction

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solvent extraction

[′säl·vənt ik‚strak·shən]
(chemical engineering)
The separation of materials of different chemical types and solubilities by selective solvent action; that is, some materials are more soluble in one solvent than in another, hence there is a preferential extractive action; used to refine petroleum products, chemicals, vegetable oils, and vitamins.
A process for removing uranium fuel residue from used fuel elements of a reactor; it generally involves decay cooling under water for up to 6 months, removal of cladding, dissolution, separation of reusable fuel, decontamination, and disposal of radioactive wastes. Also known as liquid extraction.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Solvent extraction

A technique, also called liquid extraction, for separating the components of a liquid solution. This technique depends upon the selective dissolving of one or more constituents of the solution into a suitable immiscible liquid solvent. It is particularly useful industrially for separation of the constituents of a mixture according to chemical type, especially when methods that depend upon different physical properties, such as the separation by distillation of substances of different vapor pressures, either fail entirely or become too expensive.

Industrial plants using solvent extraction require equipment for carrying out the extraction itself (extractor) and for essentially complete recovery of the solvent for reuse, usually by distillation.

The petroleum refining industry is the largest user of extraction. In refining virtually all automobile lubricating oil, the undesirable constituents such as aromatic hydrocarbons are extracted from the more desirable paraffinic and naphthenic hydrocarbons. By suitable catalytic treatment of lower boiling distillates, naphthas rich in aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and the xylenes may be produced. The latter are separated from paraffinic hydrocarbons with suitable solvents to produce high-purity aromatic hydrocarbons and high-octane gasoline. Other industrial applications include so-called sweetening of gasoline by extraction of sulfur-containing compounds; separation of vegetable oils into relatively saturated and unsaturated glyceride esters; recovery of valuable chemicals in by-product coke oven plants; pharmaceutical refining processes; and purifying of uranium.

Solvent extraction is carried out regularly in the laboratory by the chemist as a commonplace purification procedure in organic synthesis, and in analytical separations in which the extraordinary ability of certain solvents preferentially to remove one or more constituents from a solution quantitatively is exploited. Batch extractions of this sort, on a small scale, are usually done in separatory funnels, where the mechanical agitation is supplied by handshaking of the funnel.

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Engineering. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The treated solution will be oxidized and sent to a typical solvent extraction circuit, where vanadium is selectively separated and concentrated.
Grinstead, "Removal of boron and calcium from magnesium chloride brines by solvent extraction," Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Product Research and Development, vol.
Civil, environmental, and chemical engineers describe how ion exchange and solvent extraction are being applied in a number of different fields.
The solvent extraction ratio ([E.sub.s], %) can be calculated simply by
We performed aldosterone measurements by the Liaison (DiaSorin) chemiluminescent immunoassay method before and after solvent extraction on 86 outpatient plasma samples.
Microwave extraction is potential alternative of conventional liquid solvent extraction methods (Yemis and Mazza, 2012).
Scientists at the University of Wisconsin evaluated the yields and the functional properties of cranberry seed oil extracted from seeds using different extraction methods: cold pressing (CP) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE).
solvent extraction, steam distillation, and supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE).
Solvent extraction has been proven a promising treatment method for the recovery of organic compounds from oil shale.
The two projects comprise a coal to poly- generation ( CTP) project and a rice bran solvent extraction plant and refinery, it added.