Somaliland

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Somaliland,

autonomous region and self-proclaimed independent state (2008 est. pop. 3,500,000), c.53,100 sq mi (137,600 sq km), NW Somalia. It is bordered on the N by the Gulf of Aden, on the E by the Puntland region, on the S by Ethiopia, and on the W by Djibouti. HargeisaHargeisa,
 Hargeysa,
or Harghessa
, town (1984 est. pop. 70,000) and capital of the Somaliland region, N Somalia. It is a commercial center and watering place for nomadic stock herders. The town is a transportation hub and has an international airport.
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 is the capital and BerberaBerbera
, city (1985 est. pop. 67,000), Somaliland region, N Somalia, a port on the Gulf of Aden. The city, which was first described in the 13th cent. by Arab geographers, was taken in 1875 by the rulers of Egypt; when they withdrew in 1884 to fight the Mahdi in Sudan, Britain
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 is the most important port. The Cal Madow mountin range in the N includes Mt. Shimbiris, at 7,900 ft (2,407 m) the tallest mountain in Somalia. Somaliland is semiarid; livestock raising and remittances from Somalis living abroad are the main sources of income.

Between 5,000 and 11,000 years ago, early inhabitants left cave paintings in the rock shelters at Laas Geel, N of Hargeisa. Islam was introduced in the seventh century, and various sultanates ruled the region of Somaliland for several centuries. Parts of Somaliland were occupied by the Ottoman Empire in the 16th cent. and by Egypt in the early 19th cent. The British established the protectorate of British Somaliland in 1848, which became part of the newly created Somali Republic in 1960. When civil war broke out in Somalia in 1991, the region declared its independence as the Republic of Somaliland, and it has has refused to take part in national elections or in the implentation of a federal constitution. Somaliland, however, is not recognized by any country or international organization. There have been border disputes and conflicts with PuntlandPuntland,
semiautonomous region (2009 est. pop. 3,900,000), c.82,050 sq mi (212,500 sq km), extreme NE Somalia. It is bordered on the N by the Gulf of Aden, on the E by the Indian Ocean, on the S by the Gulmudug region, on the SW by Ethiopia, and on the NW by the Somaliland
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, and Somaliland has not had complete control over or the full allegiance of some areas within its claimed territory.

Somaliland

a former region of E Africa, between the equator and the Gulf of Aden: includes Somalia, Djibouti, and SE Ethiopia
References in periodicals archive ?
In fact, using stick and carrot policy, Somaliland taken away Puntland's last weapon: an ethnicity, which they used to divide Somaliland diverse societies for political gains; again, Somaliland outperformed their cheap tactics of attempting pure Somalilanders into rebellion.
Even accepting the legitimacy of the original unification, Somaliland has a right to unilateral remedial secession because Somalilanders have been denied their right to internal self-determination, and there is no means for recourse.
Hargeisa is certainly a less rambunctious city come afternoon, and while Somalilanders are amazingly proactive in responding to appointment requests, trying to fix an afternoon meeting does not tend to prove successful.
Hence many Somalilanders go outside the formal state court system -- a perfectly le- gal option -- and settle disputes either through what's known as the customary system, in- volving traditional elders rep- resenting clans of either party, or through committees made up of Islamic scholars using sharia law, a legal framework in accordance with Islam.
Hence many Somalilanders go outside the formal state court system--a perfectly legal option--and settle disputes either through what's known as the customary system, involving traditional elders representing clans of either party, or through committees made up of Islamic scholars using sharia law, a legal framework in accordance with Islam.
Throughout her 77 years, Edna Anan Ismail has always been pitted against huge forces, but the Somalilander has nevertheless won more than her fair share of battles.
Usually you get a call at 6am or 7am, and you'll agree to send $400 because you're half asleep," says Ismail, a softly-spoken Somalilander with an academic air, during an interview in his office in Hammersmith, West London.
Though he is grateful to Britain, he felt that there was a glass ceiling and being a Somalilander and a refugee meant that he could only go so far.
Yusuf is following a strong tradition of Somalilander entrepreneurs who have emerged over the past couple of decades and had a profound impact on their country, a semi-autonomous region of Somalia that is still seeking its independence.
Somalilanders walk a tightrope amidst of sleeping cells of criminality and live in fragile peace.
Some Somalilanders express concern about a steady drift toward Islamic conservatism affecting both women and society at large.
Neglect and lack of awareness among Somalilanders is making the problem worse.