Somali

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Somali

1. a member of a tall dark-skinned people inhabiting Somalia
2. the language of this people, belonging to the Cushitic subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic family of languages

Somali

 

(Somalis), a people living on the Somali Peninsula in Africa, in the Somali Democratic Republic, in neighboring parts of Ethiopia, in Kenya, in Djibouti, and in several other countries. They number about 4.9 million persons (1973, estimate) and speak Somali, a Cushitic language. The Somali are Sunni Muslims.

In the interior regions of the peninsula, elements of clan-tribal life have survived among the Somali. The main occupation is livestock raising (camels and cattle); agriculture is practiced chiefly in the Webi Shebeli and Juba river valleys. As a result of the national liberation struggle of the Somali in British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland, the sovereign Somali Republic was formed in 1960.

REFERENCE

Rait, M. V. “Somaliitsy.” Sovetskaia etnografiia, 1959, no. 1.

Somali

 

the language of the Somali people. Somali is spoken in the Somali Democratic Republic, southern Djibouti, eastern Ethiopia (Ogaden), and northeastern Kenya by approximately 4.9 million people (1973, estimate). It belongs to the Cushitic group of Hamito-Semitic, or Afrasian, languages. The principal dialects are Isâk, Issa, Darod, and Hawiyya.

In Somali, vowels are opposed to one another on the basis of length, fronting, and tonal-stress pattern, which is also employed as a grammatical marker. There are many postdorsal consonants. Substantives and verbs constitute the basic word classes. Two genders and case forms are distinguished, often only by means of tone. Most substantives change gender in the plural; dependent members of the subject and object type are almost never connected. There are definite and indefinite articles. Government is preverbal; verbs are conjugated to express person, number, and tense. Object, and sometimes subject, pronouns are obligatory for the verb. In a number of archaic verbs, conjugation is of the prefixal-suffixal type, as in the Semitic languages. Inflection and word-formation are mainly suffixal.

The sentence must contain a “predicatizing” phrase particle, which logically accentuates one member of the sentence. Attributes are placed after dependent words. A writing system based on the Latin alphabet was introduced in 1973.

REFERENCES

Zholkovskii, A. K. Sintaksis somali. Moscow, 1971.
Dolgopol’skii, A. B. Sravnitel’no-istoricheskaia fonetika kushitskikh iazykov. Moscow, 1973.
Bell, C. R. V. The Somali Language. London, 1953.
Moreno, M. M. II Somalo della Somalia. Rome, 1955.
Andrzejewski, B. W. The Declensions of Somali Nouns. London, 1964.
Abraham, R. C. Somali-English Dictionary. London, 1964.
Abraham, R. C. English-Somali Dictionary. London, 1967.

A. K. ZHOLKOVSKII and G. L. KAPCHITS

References in periodicals archive ?
TOKYO - Emperor Akihito sent a telegram to Cardinal Eduardo Martinez Somalo in the Vatican offering condolences over the death of Pope John Paul II, the Imperial Household Agency said Sunday.
The group included Sodano and Vatican chamberlain Cardinal Eduardo Somalo, who will take charge of the running of the Vatican until a new pontiff is appointed.
The Camerlengo, or chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church, Cardinal Eduardo Martinez Somalo, has already broken the Pope's Fisherman's Ring, the gold signet band which has a picture of St Peter casting his net from a boat.
The pope's quarters were sealed and funeral arrangements begun by the camerlengo, Spanish Cardinal EduardoMartinez Somalo.
The camerlengo, now Cardinal Eduardo Martinez Somalo of Spain, must then verify the death - a process which in the past was done by striking the forehead of the pope with a silver hammer.
The author of the report was nun and physician Maura O'Donohue, who presented it to the head of the Vatican's Congregation for Holy Orders, Cardinal Martinez Somalo, in February 1995.
For the next six years, Maciel had the staunch support of three pivotal figures: Sodano; Cardinal Eduardo Martinez Somalo, prefect of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life; and Msgr.