Key words: abiotic disturbance; Common Eider; compensatory predation; direct effects; exclosures; exploitation competition; field experiments; indirect effects; intertidal communities; mussel beds; Mytilus edulis; Somateria
The population dynamics of the Eider Duck Somateria
mollissima and evidence of extensive nonbreeding by adult ducks.
Many Arctic sea birds, such as Velvet Scoter (Melanitta fusca), Common Eider (Somateria
mollissima), Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea), Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres), Ringed Plover (Charadrius hiaticula), Razorbill (Alca torda), and Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle), are widely spread and breed in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland and in the Baltic Sea (Cramp and Simmons, 1978; Malchevsky and Pukinsky, 1983; Bubyreva et al., 1993; Noskov et al., 1993; Iovchenko et al., 2002; Shilin et al., 2014; Cherenkov et al., 2016).
Factors affecting nest site selection and nesting success in the common eider Somateria
The common eider (Somateria
mollissima) is a large sea duck with a circumpolar distribution.
Hyperthermia secondary to restraint or "stress-induced hyperthermia" has been well documented in several bird species, including common eider (Somateria
mollissima), Pekin ducks (Anas play-trhynchos), great tits (Parus major), pigeons (Columba livia), chickens, and 2 Amazon parrot species.
Habitat-specific clutch size and cost of incubation in common eiders, Somateria
Roedd cnul y gloch o'r goleudy'n feddwol ac wrth grwydro i lawr at y creigiau mi welwn ddwy hwyaden fwythblu (Somateria
mollissima; eider) hefo tri cyw bach ar y mor gerllaw'r lan.
A discussion of climate change and wildlife in Alaska would be incomplete without mention of two unusual bird species also associated strongly with ice: the threatened spectacled eider (Somateria
fischeri), which winters within the pack ice in shallow waters of the northern Bering Sea, and the Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris), a small seabird that visits nearshore waters in summer and is associated with tidewater glaciers.
maenas; starfish (Rivara (3)); northern puffers, Sphoeroides maculates (Rivara (3)); tautog, Tautoga onitis; eider ducks, Somateria
mollissima (Whittaker (4)); and scup, Stenotomus chrysops (Whittaker (4)) and, along shallow shores, gulls (Family Laridae) (Fig.
Yna roeddem ni wrth ochr ddeheuol yr ynys, a'r cwch wedi arafu er mwyn i ni weld yr hwyaden fwythblu (eider, Somateria
mollisima) oedd ar draethell graean bras ar yr ynys.
pygargus), Kentish plovers (Charadrius alexan-drinus), black-tailed godwits (Limosa limosa), avocets (Recurvirostra avosetta) and eiders (Somateria
mollissima) all breed.