The DSM-IV-TR, in examining somatoform disorders
, admitted that the line between somatoform disorders
and "somatic symptoms ...
relate to 'minor' psychosomatic disorders where somatic symptoms cannot be explained by organic disorders or secondary consequences of other mental symptoms (International Classification of Diseases, 1994; Clinical Psychiatry, 1998).
are relatively common in Europe, with a 12 month prevalence of about 6.3% (median) in the 18-65 year age group.
Co-morbid psychiatric disorders * in adult ADHD subjects (N=25) Co-morbidities Current Lifetime N (%) N (%) Oppositional defiant disorder 6 (24) 1 (4) Major depressive disorder 6 (24) Substance abuse/dependence 5 (20) Social phobia 2 (8) Specific phobia 2 (8) Undifferentiated somatoform disorder
2 (8) Bipolar affective disorder 2 (8) Obsessive compulsive disorder 2 (8) Pain disorder due to psychological causes 1 (4) Male erectile disorder 1 (4) Generalized anxiety disorder 1 (4) Anti-social personality disorder 1 (4) Multiple co-morbidities 6 (24) 8 (32) * Not mutually exclusive
Multiple medically unexplained symptoms increase the likelihood of a co-existing psychiatric diagnosis, with as many as half of patients having an anxiety disorder, and two-thirds a depressive disorder.3,5,7-9 Moreover, there is some evidence that functional impairment is higher in somatoform disorder
with a co-morbid depressive or anxiety disorder.
(9) In the current taxonomies DSM-IV and International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10), functional symptoms can be classified as manifestations of somatoform disorders
(physical symptoms which suggest a general medical condition).
There are conflicting reports on the rates of other psychiatric disorders (e.g., alcohol abuse, drug abuse, eating disorders, and somatoform disorders
) in the relatives of persons with autism.
differ from Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Condition in that there is no diagnosable general medical condition to fully account for the physical symptoms.
(24) The CIDI-PHCV contains sections on sociodemographic characteristics, somatoform disorders
, neurasthenia, anxiety and depressive disorders, cognitive dysfunction, and alcohol use disorders.
Mild head injury 41.24% Fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue 38.61% Pain or somatoform disorders
33.51% Neurotoxic disorders 29.49% Electrical injury 25.63% Depressive disorders 16.08% Anxiety disorders 13.57% Seizure disorders 9.35% Moderate/severe brain injury 8.82% If you look at the base rates of malingering or symptom exaggeration by referral type, Mittenberg and his colleagues report 30.43 for personal injury cases and 32.73 for disability or workers' compensation claims.
6 3 8 Abuse, neglect (focus on victim) 7 7 7 Abuse, neglect (focus on perpetrator) 2 1 3 Other situationally precipitated problems 18 13 22 Other Mental Disorders Mood disorders 22 20 25 Anxiety disorders 14 16 13 Adjustment disorders 7 6 8 Personality disorders 7 6 7 Impulse control disorders NEC 6 6 7 Sleep disorders 4 4 4 Eating disorders 3 3 3 Other mental disorder(s) 3 4 2 Mental disorders due to a general medical condition 2 2 3 Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders 2 2 3 Dissociative disorders 2 3 1 Somatoform disorders
1 2 1 Delirium, dementias 1 2 1 Factitious disorders 1 2 <1 Sexual and gender identity disorders <1 1 0 (1) Respondents were asked to mark all that apply.
Research: Researchers treated 184 patients diagnosed with somatoform disorders
(physical symptoms that seem as if they are part of a general medical condition, however no general medical condition, other mental disorder, or substance is present), but without major depression.