Sonderbund


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Sonderbund

(zôn`dərbo͝ont) [Ger.,=separate league], 1845–47, defensive league of seven Roman Catholic cantons of Switzerland; it was formed to protect Catholic interests and prevent the establishment of a more centralized Swiss government. The cantons were Lucerne, Fribourg, Valais, Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, and Zug. The rise of the Radical party in the majority of cantons had resulted in anti-Catholic measures such as the closing (1841) of all convents in Aargau. When Lucerne retaliated (1844) by recalling the Jesuits, armed bandits of Radicals invaded the canton. This action, combined with the Catholic cantons' opposition to the Radicals' program of a more unified federalization (which imperiled the position of the predominantly rural, reactionary, and sparsely populated Catholic cantons), provoked the seven cantons to form a defensive alliance (1845). The Radical majority in the federal diet declared the Sonderbund dissolved (1847) and shortly afterward sent an army, under Gen. Guillaume Henri Dufour, against the separatist forces. Lord Palmerston, the British foreign minister, helped prevent foreign intervention, and in an almost bloodless campaign the Sonderbund was defeated. The adoption (1848) of a federal constitution ended the virtual sovereignty of the individual cantons. The Society of Jesus was banned from Switzerland, and the establishment of new religious houses was forbidden.

Sonderbund

 

(German, “special union”), a reactionary bloc of seven cantons of the Swiss Confederation (Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Zug, Luzern, Fribourg, and Valais), created in 1843–45 with the aim of opposing bourgeois-democratic changes in the cantons and preserving the political fragmentation of the country. The Sonderbund, which united the most backward regions of Switzerland, was led by the Catholic Church and the inner circle of the high bourgeoisie, the so-called patriciate. The Diet of the Swiss Confederation proclaimed the dissolution of the Sonderbund in 1847 and proposed that the cantons expel the Jesuits. The Sonderbund refused to submit to this demand and unleashed a civil war in November 1847. Within one month the federal army crushed the armed forces of the Sonderbund, which had the assistance of the governments of Austria and France. The constitution of 1848 transformed Switzerland from an unstable union of states into a unified federated state.

REFERENCES

Engels, F. “Grazhdanskaia voina v Shveitsarii.” In K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 4.
Engels, F. “Dvizheniia 1847 goda.” Ibid.
References in periodicals archive ?
En 1847 se habia producido una guerra civil, religiosa y politica, conocida como del Sonderbund, en la que la liga catolica fue vencida.
Among the various art publications Davies was perusing at this time was the catalogue for the Sonderbund Exhibition, the first truly comprehensive show of modern art, on view in Cologne, Germany.
After four years of private art lessons with her mother, Malfatti travelled to Germany in 1910, where she studied with Lovis Corinth, and was introduced to works by the French Symbolists and Post-Impressionists at the great Sonderbund exhibition in Cologne in 1912.
3 The Sonderbund War of 1847 led to the creation of which federal state?
In Germany he attracted attention with his participation in the 1911 and 1912 Berliner Secession exhibitions, the legendary Sonderbund exhibition in Cologne in 1912 and with his first retrospective in Munich's Galerie Thannhauser in 1913.
The latter, in turn, was much influenced by the 1912 Sonderbund exhibition in Cologne, which the Americans took as their model.
As the military leader of Switzerland, Dufour prevented the secession of the seven cantons of the Sonderbund in 1847.
Swiss monetary unification was a process distinct from ordinary nation building; an existing loose federal arrangement was reinforced through the adoption of a new constitution giving more powers to the central government after a short internal conflict in 1845-6, the Sonderbund war.
Joachim Remak's title, A Very Civil War, may explain why his is the first work in English on the Sonderbund War; small wars with few casualties attract less attention.
Sin embargo, los catolicos eran una minoria (41,6% de la poblacion en 1900) (4), afincada en los cantones del antiguo Sonderbund, en retroceso economico, con una fuerte emigracion hacia los cantones industriales, faltos de medios para la autoafirmacion y la organizacion.
In the so-called war of the Sonderbund, the Catholics were defeated and the liberals were able to e stablish a constitution according to their conception of Switzerland.
Payot, 1993); Joachim Remak, A Very Civil War: the Swiss Sonderbund War of 1847 (Westview Press, 1993); Fritz-Rene Allemann, Vingt-six fois la Suisse (L'Aire, 1985, also available in German); Daniet Frei, `The Politics of the Artificial Past: The Emergence of Swiss Nationalism' in J.