Johnson grass

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Related to Sorghum halepense: Sorghum bicolor, Digitaria sanguinalis, Johnson grass

Johnson grass:

see sorghumsorghum,
tall, coarse annual (Sorghum vulgare) of the family Poaceae (grass family), somewhat similar in appearance to corn (but having the grain in a panicle rather than an ear) and used for much the same purposes.
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Johnson Grass

 

(Sorghum halepense), a perennial herbaceous plant of the Gramineae family; a pernicious weed.

The stems of Johnson grass are 1–2 m high. The inflorescence is a panicle (to 40 cm). There are two or three uniflor-ous spikes on each sprig. A single plant yields several thousand fruits, which drop off and heavily litter the soil. The rhizomes are segmented, with thick internodes and nodes. The mature plant is a vigorous bush with numerous shoots and rhizomes that densely penetrate the topsoil. The principal mass of rhizomes lies up to 20 cm deep, but a few penetrate to a depth of 60–80 cm. Johnson grass is found from the Mediterranean to India and China. In the USSR it is found in the Crimea, the Caucasus, and Middle Asia. The shoots yield a high quantity of nutritive green matter. Johnson grass is readily eaten by horned cattle and horses, both in green form and in the form of hay. At the same time, it is a dangerous and resistant weed of irrigated agriculture; it contaminates all crops, especially cotton. It often grows along the banks of rivers and irrigation ditches. Control measures include deep clod plowing in summer, drying the rhizomes for two weeks; careful and deep cultivation of row crops; sowing alfalfa and mowing it down early (which greatly suppresses and destroys the Johnson grass); autumn plowing to a depth of 20–30 cm; and systematic mowing of Johnson grass in irrigation ditches.

REFERENCES

Agadzhanian, G. Kh. Biologiia gumaia i mery bor’by s nim.Yerevan, 1939.
Kormovye rasleniia senokosov i pastbishch SSSR,vol. 1. Edited by I. V. Larin. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.
Nikitin, V. V. Sornaia rastitet’nost’ Turkmenii.Ashkhabad. 1957.
Kott, S. A. Sornye rasteniia i bor’ba s nimi,3rd ed. Moscow, 1961.

T. V. EGOROVA and V. V. NIKITIN

References in periodicals archive ?
The effect of weed species also shows that the maximum and minimum of root length owned to Echinochloa crus-galli and Sorghum halepense respectively.
In this experiment Sorghum halepense under control treatment (corrosion and salt) has the highest (355/10) and 5 day wear Malva and Echinochloa under similar treatments under salinity of 12 dS m-aging treatments, 7 days 0, 4, 8 and 12 dS m and Sorghum under 5 days erosion and salinity treated, 4, 8 and 12 DS/m as well as the seed Sorghum in 7 days salinity treated 0, 4, 8 and 12 dS m had the lowest shoot length.
De las 13 comunidades observadas antes del paso del huracan, ocho se mantenian despues con la misma estructura y composicion floristica, aunque algunas se habian restringido en superficie, como el caso de la comunidad con Sorgu m halepense, comunidad con Corchorus hirsutus y comunidad con Uniola paniculata; mientras que la comunidad con Cenchrus echinatus y Sporobolus virginicus se habia extendido notablemente entre los Sectores Amigos del Mar y Residencial, donde ocupo la zonas en las que se establecio con exito la comunidad con Sorghum halepense antes del paso del huracan.
lineata Sida ciliaris var ciliaris Canavalia rosea III(r-5) Stylosanthes hamata Pithecellobium keyense Scaevola plumieri II(1-4) Cassytha filiformis II(r-2) Corchorus hirsutus III(r-1) II(r-1) Waltheria indica Boerhavia erecta Stemodia maritima Cenchrus echinatus IV(r-1) Eragrostis prolifera Eustachys petraea Paspalum saugetii Sorghum halepense V(+-5) Sporobolus virginicus IV(r-4) III(r-+) Uniola paniculata II(r) II(r) Urochloa distachya Exostema caribaeum Tribulus cistoides Colubrina arborescens Krugiodendrum ferreum Erithalis fruticosa Randia aculeata Smilax havanensis Solanum bahamense I(r-1) Suriana maritima Lantana involucrata Stachytarpheta jamaicensis Ernodea litoralis Reynosia camagueyensis Tephrosia cinerea (L.
Durante el experimento prevalecieron las especies monocotiledoneas Sorghum halepense L.
Locations for the trials were purposely selected to have a significant amount of undesirable grasses such as Sorghum halepense (L.
Item Winter Spring Summer Autumn Fruit and Seed Juniperus ashei 222 38 61 Rhus virens 21 5 Celtis laevigata 4 Quercus fusiformis 5 23 Sorghum halepense 40 60 Cassia Lindheimeriana 20 Diospyros texana 3 Green Foliage Sorghum halepense 8 14 23 20 Bothriochola ischaemum 8 17 28 31 Stipa leucotricha 22 15 2 15 Melilotus albus 28 16 8 Opuntia lindheimeri 5 3 2 4 Croton monanthogynus 1 4 9 Shrankia roemeriana 1 1 Torilis nodosa 19 8 2 Lepidium virginicum 1 2 Houstonia nigricans 4 1 Lupinus texensis 1 Rumex acetosella 4 Abutilon incanum 3 3
Three plants were found as occasional oviposition hosts, on which the sharpshooter individuals, however, were never found: guava, Psidium guajaua (Myrtaceae), flame berry, Urera caracasana (Urticaceae), and Johnson grass, Sorghum halepense (Poaceae).
Egg mass Number of Plant species location egg masses found Citrus limon Leaf 96 Stem/shoot 17 Cedrela lilloi Leaf 12 Stem/shoot 8 Zea mays Leaf 21 Ligustrum lucidum Leaf 9 Psidium guajava Leaf 5 Urera caracasana Leaf 1 Stem/shoot 1 Diadenopteryx sorbifolia Leaf 2 Bauhinia forfIcata Leaf 2 Sorghum halepense Leaf 1 Ruprechtia laxiflora Leaf 1 Egg mass Number of eggs per egg mass Plant species location (Meant [+ or -] SD) Citrus limon Leaf 9.
maxima other aggressive perennial grasses including Pennisetum ciliare (buffelgrass), Dichanthium annulatum (Kleberg bluestem), Dichanthium aristatum (Angleton bluestem), Cynodon dactylon (Bermudagrass), and Sorghum halepense (Johnsongrass) have replaced native species.