(Social Democrat), an illegal newspaper and central organ of the RSDLP; after the sixth (Prague) All-Russian Conference of the RSDLP (1912), the central organ of the Bolsheviks.
Sotsial-demokrat was founded in accordance with a resolution of the Fifth Congress of the RSDLP (1907). The first issue came out in Russia in February 1908, but virtually all copies were seized by the police. In accordance with a resolution of the Fifth All-Russian Conference of the RSDLP (1908), the newspaper was published in Paris from 1909 to 1913 (nos. 2–32). It was published subsequently in Geneva from 1914 to 1917 (nos. 33–58). In all, 58 issues were published; the last came out Jan. 31 (Feb. 13), 1917. The newspaper published two issues of Sotsial-demokrat Anthology in 1916, as well as newspaper supplements.
The editorial board of Sotsial-demokrat included Bolsheviks, Mensheviks, and Polish Social Democrats. In 1911 the Mensheviks F. I. Dan and L. Martov left the editorial staff. The de facto editor in chief was V. I. Lenin, who used the newspaper to wage an implacable struggle against liquidators, otzovisty (recallers), and Trotskyists and to encourage the consistent implementation of Bolshevik policies and the unification and strengthening of party forces. Dozens of articles by Lenin were published in Sotsial-demokrat. The newspaper first published Lenin’s work “On the Slogan of the United States of Europe,” which concluded that it was possible for the socialist revolution to win its first victory in several countries or even in a single country.
During World War I (1914–18), Sotsial-demokrat played a significant role in propagandizing Leninist slogans on war, peace, and revolution. At various times contributors included D. Blagoev, D. Bednyi, M. Gorky, P. A. Dzhaparidze, I. F. Dubrovinskii, A. M. Kollontai, V. K. Kurnatovskii, R. Luxemburg, Iu. Markhlevskii, G. K. Ordzhonikidze, N. A. Semashko, and J. V. Stalin.
(Social Democrat), a Russian-language literary and political review published in Geneva by the Liberation of Labor group. Sotsial-demokrat published four books—the first, second, and third in 1890, and the fourth in 1892. Most of its work was directed by G. V. Plekhanov, P. B. Aksel’rod, and V. I. Zasulich. Primary attention was focused on Russian public life and literature. Lists of revolutionaries arrested in Russia were also printed.
Sotsial-demokrat printed Plekhanov’s articles “N. G. Cher-nyshevskii,” “OurNarodnik Fiction Writers: S. Karonin,” “May 1, 1890,” “The Russian Workers in the Revolutionary Movement,” and “The Desolation of all Russia,” as well as articles by Aksel’rod and Zasulich, translations of F. Engels’ articles, and selections from the correspondence of K. Marx and A. Ruge of 1843. A listing of new books was also published in the review.
(Social Democrat), a daily newspaper and organ of the Moscow oblast bureau of the Central Committee of the RSDLP(B); organ of the party’s city committee and later of its district committee. Sotsial-demokrat was published from Mar. 7 (20), 1917, through Mar. 15, 1918. At various times the editorial board included M. S. Ol’minskii, N. Osinskii (V. V. Obolenskii), I. I. Skvortsov-Stepanov, A. A. Sol’ts, and E. M. Iaroslavskii. Other contributors included A. S. Bubnov, B. M. Volin, V. P. Nogin, P. G. Smidovich, and G. A. Usievich.
Sotsial-demokrat published a total of 292 issues; the circulation was 47,000–60,000. The newspaper printed dozens of articles, speeches, and documents by V. I. Lenin, as well as resolutions of the Central Committee of the RSDLP(B), the Seventh (April) All-Russian Conference, and the Sixth Congress of the RSDLP(B). It also printed contributions from correspondents, letters from workers, soldiers, and peasants, and resolutions of meetings. In March 1918, in conjunction with the transfer of the Soviet government and the party’s Central Committee from Petrograd to Moscow, the newspaper merged with Pravda, the central organ of the RCP(B). [24–637–1 ]