Phonemic awareness and sound symbol
segmentation, mentioned by Snell, are generally the preferred method used to teach reading to the special education student.
Each material is also coded with a pictorial icon to identify the material's focus, including assessment, fluency, phonological awareness, sound symbol
and spelling, reading and phonics, writing and handwriting, or other resources (professional tools, references, and general education materials).
To determine the effectiveness of the SMILA approach, 39 students were assessed using the WIST on pre- and post- indicators of word identification and sound symbol
To further increase the quality of text-to-speech synthesis, limited syntactic analysis is used to determine sentence structure and augment the string of sound symbols
with pitch and duration information.
The sound symbols
they hear are distorted and difficult to distinguish" (p.