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Te Waipounamu[Maori,=the waters of greenstone] (1996 pop. 900,114), 58,093 sq mi (150,461 sq km), New Zealand. It is the larger but less populous of the two principal islands of the country and is also known as the Mainland. It is separated from North IslandNorth Island
or Te Ika-a-Maui
[Maori,=the fish of Maui] (1996 pop. 2,718,188), 44,702 sq mi (115,777 sq km), New Zealand. It is the smaller but more populous of the two principal islands of the country.
..... Click the link for more information. , the other principal island, by Cook Strait and from Stewart IslandStewart Island,
island, 674 sq mi (1,746 sq km), S New Zealand, 20 mi (32 km) S of the South Island across Foveaux Strait. Halfmoon Bay is the main settlement. A mountainous and scenic island, it is a summer resort. Frozen fish and granite are exported.
..... Click the link for more information. by Foveaux Strait.
The island includes the extensive Canterbury Plains, on the central E coast, and the Southern AlpsSouthern Alps,
mountain range, on South Island, New Zealand, paralleling the west coast. It rises to 12,349 ft (3,764 m) at Mt. Aorangi (Mt. Cook), New Zealand's highest peak. Extensively glaciated, the snowcapped range has many deep gorges; Tasman and Franz Josef glaciers are there.
..... Click the link for more information. , which extend almost the entire length of the island. The Clutha and Waitaki are the largest rivers. Much of the western half of the island is in national parks or other conservation lands, including New Zealand's two largest national parks, Fiordland, which includes a major portion of the southwest, and Kahurangi, which encompasses much of the northwest corner. The South Island's principal cities are ChristchurchChristchurch,
city (1996 pop. 309,027), E South Island, New Zealand, on the Avon River. It is the third largest city in New Zealand and the commercial center of the productive Canterbury Plains.
..... Click the link for more information. , DunedinDunedin
, city (1996 pop. 118,143), SE South Island, New Zealand, at the head of Otago Harbor. Dunedin, with Port Chalmers, is an important port and industrial center. The chief exports are wool, meat, and furniture. The Univ.
..... Click the link for more information. , and InvercargillInvercargill
, city (1996 pop. 53,208), extreme S South Island, New Zealand, on the Southland Plain. It is an agricultural center with timber, wool, and food-processing industries. The Bluff, on the Foveaux Strait, is its port.
..... Click the link for more information. .
The South Island is New Zealand's main source of native timber. Grain and fruit are grown and sheep are raised; the island's northeast includes some of New Zealand's top wine-producing regions. Some coal, gold, and oil is found on South Island. The island has several large hydroelectric projects.
the largest island of New Zealand. Area, 150,500 sq km. Population, 829,500 (1973). The South Island is separated from the North Island by Cook Strait and from Stewart Island by Foveaux Strait. The Southern Alps occupy almost the entire island, which reaches an elevation of 3,764 m at Mount Cook, New Zealand’s highest peak. In the east lie the Canterbury Plains, the chief farming region of New Zealand. In the southwest are the Southland Plain and the Otago Plateau, which has elevations of 1,200–1,300 m. The island has a subtropical, marine climate except in the extreme south, where the climate is temperate. The principal city is Christchurch.