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Tilsit(tĭl`zĭt), town (1989 pop. 41,900), NW European Russia, on the Neman River at the mouth of the Tilse. It is a rail junction, a river port, and an industrial and commercial center in an agricultural area. Lumbering and woodworking are the chief industries; others include the production of machines, cotton cloth, and Tilsit cheese. The town grew around a castle built in 1288 by the Teutonic Knights and was chartered in 1552. Napoleon I, having won the battle of Friedland, met Emperor Alexander I of Russia on June 25, 1807, on a raft in the Neman River off Tilsit. Their negotiations, joined later by King Frederick William III of Prussia, an ally of Russia, led to the treaties of Tilsit of July 7 and July 9, 1807. By the first treaty, France made peace with Russia, which recognized the grand duchy of Warsaw and which secretly promised to mediate between France and England; if England should reject mediation, Russia was to ally itself with France. At the same time, France gave Russia a free hand with regard to Finland, then a Swedish possession. The Russo-French alliance proved tenuous and collapsed altogether in 1812. In the second treaty, Napoleon drastically reduced Prussia, which lost all its territory west of the Elbe to France and most of its Polish provinces to the grand duchy of Warsaw. Danzig became a free city, the Prussian army was reduced to 42,000 men, several leading Prussian fortresses were to be garrisoned by French troops, and Prussia was to join in the Continental System against England. Prussia was thus reduced to virtual vassalage to France, from which it freed itself only in 1813. Tilsit was occupied by Soviet forces in World War II and was transferred, along with other sections of East Prussia, to the USSR at the Potsdam Conference of 1945.
(until 1946, Tilsit), a city under oblast jurisdiction in Kaliningrad Oblast, RSFSR. Port on the left bank of the Neman River; junction of railroad lines to Kaliningrad, Radviliskis, and Cherniakhovsk. Located 123 km northeast of Kaliningrad. Population, 41,000 (1975).
A castle of the knights of the Livonian Order was founded in what is now Sovetsk in 1288 and a Prussian fortress was built on the site of the castle between 1406 and 1409. A settlement that arose near the fortress was designated the city of Tilsit in 1552 and later became a trade center of East Prussia. Tilsit was captured by Russian troops in 1757 and 1914. Emperor Alexander I and Emperor Napoleon I concluded the Treaty of Tilsit of 1807 in the city. Tilsit became part of Germany in 1871. As a result of the East Prussian Operation of 1945, it was taken by storm by Soviet troops on January 19–20. In accordance with a decision of the Potsdam Conference of 1945, a portion of East Prussia, including Tilsit, was turned over to the USSR.
Sovetsk has a pulp-and-paper combine, factories for the production of clothing, tricot, and cardboard, a plant for the construction of fishing vessels, a flour mill, a brewery, a plant for the production of yeast, a fruit cannery, and a meat-packing combine. The city has a school of cinematography, a cultural-education school, and a drama theater.
REFERENCEBirkovskii, V. G., V. S. Isupov, and V. Ia. Rubanovich. Sovetsk, 2nd ed. [Kaliningrad] 1967.
a city and the administrative center of Sovetsk Raion, Kirov Oblast, RSFSR. It is situated near the mouth of the Pizhma River (a tributary of the Viatka), 103 km south of the Kotel’nich railroad junction. Major landing on the Viatka. Population, 18,000 (1975). Industry includes the production of felt footwear, lace, knitwear, gloves, construction materials, and wood products. Sovetsk is the site of the Suvod’ State Forestry Establishment-Technicum; it also has medical and pedagogical schools and a museum of local lore.
a city (since 1954) in Shchekino Raion, Tula Oblast, RSFSR. It is situated on the Upa River (Oka River basin), 16 km southeast of the Shchekino railroad station on the Tula-Orel line. Sovetsk is the site of the Shchekino State Regional Electric Power Plant, which operates on coal from the Moscow coal basin.